Professor Lok-sang HO, BSocSc (HKU); MA, PhD (Toronto)

hophoto2.jpg (25122 bytes)  

[Contact] [Profile] [Publications] [Services] [Course Reference Materials]

     Professor Lok-sang Ho,  Professor of Economics and Director of the Centre for Public Policy Studies, Lingnan University, is the author of Principles of Public Policy Practice and Health Care Financing and Delivery: A Model for Reform, and has published over 80 academic papers in journals and book chapters. Prof. Ho has been active in community and professional service.  He served as President of the HK Economic Association for eight years through 2007 and has been an Advisor for the Hong Kong Institute of Monetary Research since 1999, a Council member of the People’s Council for Sustainable Development since 2004.  He had also served as a member of HK Committee of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Central Policy Unit of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

Professor Ho's publications:

    Academic Papers
    Working Papers: Happiness and Public Policy
    Commentaries: Press, Lingnan Commentary, Policy Diary
    Translated Works:  
  Daodejing, One Hundred Stories about the Buddha, Xin Xin Ming 信心銘/ Song of Truthful Mind  (Music by Frankie Ho)  
    Literary Works  
  Human Spirituality and Happiness, PoemsTiandijian 天地間  
Professor Ho's CV  


Address:     Department of Economics, Lingnan University, Tuen Mun

Phone:        (852) 26167178

Fax:            (852) 28917940


[Back to top]



Ph.D.(l98l) University of Toronto

M.A.(l974) University of Toronto

B.Soc.Sc.(Hon.)(l972) University of Hong Kong

Research Areas

Urban and Environmental Economics, Health Economics, Public Finance, Manpower Policy, Social Security, Macroeconomic Theory and Policy, International Finance


Major Original Contributions to Economic Policy 

1.      World Currency Unit:  This is an indexed unit of account that represents a stable unit of purchasing power over a “global basket of goods and services.”  My 2000 World Economy paper explains how it is computed and how it can improve capital market efficiency and reduce financial market risks when financial instruments are denominated in the WCU.  A follow-up paper is still being refined and will be backed by more simulation exercises to show that it can serve as an anchor for currencies.  The original idea is traced back to Irving Fisher (1911); my proposal is the first one to operationalize the concept.

2.      Excessive Burden Insurance:   I demonstrate that it is far more efficient (i.e., welfare enhancing) to require users of health care services pay the full direct costs but cap annual eligible health care expenditures and thus insuring each person against having to face excessive financial burdens.  The concept was first introduced in my 1997 book on health care reform and further expanded in my 2000 Kluwer book and can also be applied to legal aid.

3.      Cohort-based Social Security:  In my 1997 Contemporary Economy Policy paper I demonstrated that social security can be fully funded yet can allow longevity risk pooling if each cohort contributes to and draws from the same fund.

4.      Fractional Deposit Insurance:   In my 1991 HK Institute for Asian Pacific Studies occasional paper and my 1992 contribution to a Chartered Institute of Bankers volume, I proposed a concept of deposit insurance that protects deposits 100% of their checking account deposits, 80% of savings account deposits, and 50% of other deposits that are more of an investment character.  This is in contrast to the common practice of offering a fixed dollar limit protection per depositor per bank.  I demonstrated that this sufficiently deals with the moral hazard problem and removes the need for depositors to split their deposits among a number of banks in order to enjoy protection.

5.      Ex Ante Utility:      In my 2000 Kluwer book, I introduced the concept of ex ante utility as distinct from the von Neumann-Morgenstern  concept of expected utility.  It refers to the ex ante subjective assessment of a prospect with uncertain outcomes. This explains why the damage from the SARS episode was so huge even though the chances of contracting the disease are so small.   When people are scared utility is immediately reduced ex ante, even though they are actually not physically affected by SARS.  The expected utility paradigm, which just focuses on the idea of the mathematical expectation of ex post utilities for the “well” and “not well” states of the world, ignores the fear or anxiety factor.  My approach implores policy makers to consider the benefits and costs of ex ante utility gains and losses from policies.

6.      Human nature and public policy:  In my 2000 paper in the International Journal of Social Economics and 2000 Kluwer book, I argued that public policy must take full account of human nature.  This is a much more generalized and more positive version of the Lucas Critique, which argues that policies often have unintended consequences because they fail to take account of the behavioural responses of people to the policies themselves. 

7.      Universal Wage  Subsidy:   In my 2000 paper in Policy Sciences, I proposed the idea of giving all full time workers a common wage subsidy, to be financed by an increase in the progressivity of income tax.  This effectively redistributes incomes from high income earners to low income earners.  This is an improvement over Milton Friedman’s negative income tax, because it is conditional on full time employment, while Friedman’s proposal would bias incentives against work.


Scholarships and Honours

Lambda Alpha International Fraternity Scholarship in land economics (1976/77)

University of Toronto Doctoral Fellowship, l975/76,74/75

Sir Robert Black Trust Fund Scholarship, l973/74


Professional Experience (Full Time)

Professor, Department of Economics, Director, Centre for Public Policy Studies, Lingnan University (from November 1, 1995 ), and Chair, Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, Lingnan University(2004/5, 2005/6) 

Convenor, Programme Assessment Panel, 2005-2006, Chair, RPSP, 2005/06; Convenor, Sexual Harrassment Investigation Panel, 2004, Had served as Department Head up to 2004 and Acting Dean of Social Sciences numerous occasions in 1996/97; member of Academic Board/Senate (up to Aug.2004), Staff Development Committee, Postgraduate Studies Committee, Examinations Committee, Academic Planning and Development Committee, Task Force on Research Centres, Task Force on Institutional Review, Director of Centre for Public Policy Studies; Advisory Board member for APIAS and for CAPS,  and Advisory Board member for HK Institute of Business Studies, Chairman, Catering Committee (2003-4), member of Academic Staff Review Committee (August 2004-5) 

Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Economics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Aug. 1993-Oct.1995( Lecturer, Sept. 1983-July 93) 

Program Director of the Environmental Education, Policies, and Laws program of the Centre for Environmental Studies of the CUHK (June 1991-1995)   

Board Secretary, Board of Studies in Economics, CUHK (August 1993-August 1995) ; Chairman, Library Committee, Economics Department (Sept. 1992-August 1993; Sept.-December 1994) ;   Member of the Committee on Student Affairs, United College(l988‑1991).   Served on the Graduate Studies Panel, the Seminar/Lecture Committee, the Staff‑student Consultative Committee and the Executive Committee of the Board of Studies in Economics.  Member of the Board of the Faculty of Social Sciences and a member on the Senate Committee on Final Scholastic Assessment. Member in the thesis committees of several M.Phil.students.  External Supervisor of a Ph.D. student in HK Polytechnic University (Environmental Economics)  Coordinator for the Policy & Management Group in the Project on Special Economic Zones and China's Open Door Policy, Centre for Contemporary Asian Studies and convenor for the working group on social services, Centre for Hong Kong Studies(1984-85).       Coordinator for United College in economics from l983 to l988. 

Research Officer, Ontario Economic Council, Toronto, August l98l‑August l983 (Principal area: industrial policy)

Responsibilities include research, managing projects commissioned by the Ontario Economic Council, liaison with prospective researchers for OEC projects, preparation of research solicitation documents

Economist, Economic Policy Branch, Ministry of Treasury & Economics, Queen's Park, Toronto, Sept.l979‑August 1981 

Responsibilities include economic forecasting and policy simulation, preparation of briefing notes, and policy advice.  Research areas included inflation and unemployment, manpower policies, energy, inter‑governmental relations, etc.

Demonstrator in Economics, University of Hong Kong, July 1, 1972 to June 30, 1973


 [Back to top]

List of Publications

Refereed and Professional Journals

  Macroeconomics, International Finance, and the Global Economy

  Public Policy, Justice, and Welfare

  Labour Economics and Policy

  Urban and Environmental Economics

  Banking and Finance



Editorship for Books

Contributions to Books

  Hong Kong Studies

  China Studies


Book Review and Conference Proceedings

Contributions to Student-Edited Academic Journals

Other Publications (selections only)

 [Back to top]

Refereed and Professional Journals

Macroeconomics, International Finance, and the Global Economy


"The Nexus between Housing and the Macro economy: The Hong Kong Case,” Pacific Economic Review, with Gary Wong, 13(2), pp. 223-239

2006 "The Role of Fiscal and Monetary Policy", Pacific Economic Review, 11(1) February, pp. 121-127.
2005 "The Effect of Outward Processing Trade on Wage Inequality: The Hong Kong Case", with Xiangdong Wei and Wai Chung Wong, Journal of International Economics, September 2005, 67, pp. 241-257.
2000 "Towards a New International Monetary Order: The World Currency Unit and the Global Indexed Bond", The World Economy, Vo. 23, No.7, pp. 939-950.
1998 "Country of Origin Rules: Its Origin, Nature, and Directions for Reform", Pacific Economics Review (UK), Vol. 3, No. 2, June 1998, pp. 161-166.
1997 "Hong Kong in the 21st Century", New Asia, Yoido Society for New Asia (Korea), 4(2), pp. 88-98.

"Regional Balance of Payments: an Interpretation," Regional Studies (U.K.), Vol. 27, No.5, 1993, pp.457-466.

1990 "A Proposal for an Adaptive Linked Exchange Rate System," Hong Kong Economic Papers, 20, pp. 89-96.

"Government Deficit Financing and Stabilization," Journal of Economic Studies (U.K.),Vol.15, no.5, 1988, pp. 34-44.


"Productivity-based Real Incomes Policy," Journal of Economics and International Relations, Vol. 1, No.4, pp. 343-353.

1982 "The Underlying Inflation Rate: a note," Atlantic Economic Journal, March 1982.

(11 items)

[Back to top]

Public Policy, Justice, and Welfare

2001 "Health Care Financing and Delivery in Hong Kong: What Should Be Done," Hong Kong Medical Journal, June 2001, pp. 155-161.  
(Available from )
2000 "The Nature of Optimal Public Policy,” International Journal of Social Economics(UK), Vo.l 27, Issue 10,  pp.1013-1079.
1998 "A Model of Human Nature and Personal Development,” Journal of Socio- Economics(USA), Vol. 27, no. 2, pp.271-287
"The Hong Kong Economy as a Special Administrative Region of China” Asian Affairs, Vol.24, no.4 Winter, pp.227-235.
  "What Hong Kong's Youth Can Learn from the Asian Financial Crisis,” Journal of Youth Studies, July, Vol.2, no.2, pp.99-102.
1997 "Institutional Foundations for a Just Society,” Journal of Socio-Economics (USA), Vol. 26, no.6, pp.627-643.
1995 "Market Reform and China's Health Care System," Social Sciences and Medicine (U.K.), Vol. 41, no.8, October, pp.1065-1072.
1994 "Democracy and Economic Development," Hong Kong Economic Papers (H.K.: HK Economic Assn.), No. 23, pp.63-65.

(8 items)

[Back to top]

Labour Economics and Policy

2000 Are Old Workers Disadvantaged in the Hong Kong Labour Market?”, (with Xiangdong Wei and Thomas Voon), Asian Economic Journal., 14(3), September 2000, pp. 283-300.
"Wage Subsidies as a Labour Market Policy Tool,” Policy Sciences, 33, pp. 89-100.
1999 "Age Discrimination in the Labour Market: Fact or Fiction?” International Employment Relations Review, with Xiang-dong Wei and Thomas Voon, Vol. 5, No.1, pp.43-62, July.
"The Determinants of Hiring Older Workers: Evidence from Hong Kong,” (joint with John S. Heywood and Xiang-dong Wei), Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol.52, no.3, pp. 444-459.
1997 "A Universal Fully Funded Pension Scheme,” Contemporary Economic Policy (USA), Vol. XV, July, 13-20.
1991 "Retirement Provisions: A Social Responsibility," Hong Kong Journal of Gerontology, December 1991, Vol.5. no.2(co-author with J.P. Leung and J.J. Lee), pp.8-12.
"Retirement Benefit Programs: Analysis and a Proposal for Hong Kong," Hong Kong Journal of Gerontology, June 1991, pp.16-22 (lead author with J.J. Lee and J.P. Leung).

(7 items)

[Back to top]

Urban and Environmental Economics

2008 "Domino Effects within a Housing Market: The Response of House Prices Across Quality Tiers", with Yue Ma and Don Haurin, Journal of Real Estate Economics and Finance,  forthcoming.
2006 "Privatization of Public Housing: Did it Cause the 1998 Recession in Hong Kong?", Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 262-273.
1996 "How can waste recycling and waste minimization be fitted into Hong Kong's waste management system," Transactions, HK: HK Institute of Engineers(with S.S. Chung and S.C. Poon), Vol. 3, no.1, pp. 9-16.
1995 "Privatization of Public Housing: an Analysis of Policy Alternatives," Contemporary Economic Policy(USA), Vol. 8, no. 3, July, pp.53-63.
1992 "Rent Control: Its Rationale and Effects," Urban Studies(U.K.), Vol.29, No.7,1992, pp.1183-1190.

"Compensation, Risks, and Efficiency," Planning and Development(Journal of the HK Institute of Planners), Vol.7 No.2 1991, pp.61-62.

1989 "Optimal Cities," Urban Studies(U.K.), Vol.26, pp.510-516.

"Towards an Optimal Public Housing Policy," Urban Studies(U.K.), Vol.25, pp.204- 211.

1986 "On Electronic Road Pricing and Traffic Management in Hong Kong," Hong Kong Economic Papers, no.17.

(8 items)

[Back to top]

Banking and Finance


"Deposit Insurance: an economic perspective," Hong Kong Economic Papers, No. 22, 1992, pp.21-33.

(1 item)

[Back to top]

Authored Books

2003 A Testimonial Account of the Ups and Downs of the Hong Kong Economy (香港經濟浮沉見証錄), in Chinese, Mingpao Publishers, 241 pp.
2001 Economic Impacts of Logistics Infrastructure Development: The Case of Hong Kong, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 123 pp.
2000 Principles of Public Policy Practice, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, November 2000, 248 pp.
1997 Health Care Financing and Delivery: A Model for Reform, City University Press for Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research(140pp.)
Health Care Reform: an Economic Perspective(in Chinese), by Commercial Press, HK(192pp.).

(5 items)

[Back to top]

Editorship for Books

2009 Public Governance in Asia and the Limits of Electoral Democracy, edited with Brian Bridges, Edward Elgar, forthcoming.
2006 China, Hong Kong, and the World Economy: a Study of Globalization, edited with Robert Ash, Palgrave Macmillan, joint author of Introduction and a chapter.
  Happiness and Public Policy, edited with Yew-kwang Ng, Palgrave Macmillan, joint author of Introduction and a chapter.
2005 Education Reform and the Quest for Excellence: The Hong Kong Story, with Paul Morris and Yue Ping Chung (eds.) and contributor for 3 chapters plus Introduction, HK: Hong Kong University Press.
  Growing Up in Hong Kong in the 21st Century, in Chinese, Mingpao Publishing Company.
2003 Exchange Rate Regimes and Macroeconomic Stability, joint editor with Chi-wa Yuen), Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
1993 The Other Hong Kong Report, HK: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press (with Po King Choi).
The Long Term Prospects of the Chinese Economy (joint editor with K. Ishihara, Chang Qing, and Charng Kao) Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.
1989 Economic Development in Chinese Societies: Models and Experiences, Hong Kong University Press, 1989(joint editor with Y.C.Jao and Victor Mok).

(8 items)

[Back to top]


2003 "Hong Kong’s Economic Crisis and Misguided Housing Policy", HKIAPS Occasional Paper.
1991 "International Labour Migration: the case of Hong Kong", HKIAPS Occasional Paper (with P.W. Liu and K.C. Lam), Chinese University of Hong Kong.
1991 "A Proposal for Deposit Insurance in Hong Kong", Hong Kong Institute for Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Occasional Paper.
1990 "Retirement Benefit Programs: Analysis and a Proposal for Hong Kong", Hong Kong Institute for Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Occasional Paper (With J.J. Lee and J.P. Leung).

 (4 items)

[Back to top]


Contributions to Books

Hong Kong Studies

2008 "Economy", in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in Its First Decade, edited by Joseph Cheng, City University of Hong Kong Press, forthcoming.
2005 "Housing as a Mover of the Domestic Economy", in Joseph Cheng, The July 1 Protest Rally: Interpreting a Historic Event, City University of HK Press.
  "In Search of Excellence - An Introduction to the Volumn", in Ho, (eds.)", Education Reform and the Quest for Excellence: The Hong Kong Story, HK: Hong Kong University Press.
  "Education Reform: A Socio-Economic Perspective", in Ho, Paul Morris and Yue Ping Chung (eds.), Education Reform and the Quest for Excellence: The Hong Kong Story, HK: Hong Kong University Press.
  "The Way to Build World Class Universities in Hong Kong", in Ho, Paul Morris and Yue Ping Chung (eds.), Education Reform and the Quest for Excellence: The Hong Kong Story, HK: Hong Kong University Press.
  "Education Reform in Hong Kong: What are the Lessons", in Ho, Paul Morris and Yue Ping Chung (eds.), Education Reform and the Quest for Excellence: The Hong Kong Story, HK: Hong Kong University Press.
2002 "Policy Blunder of the Century Threatens Hong Kong's Economic Future", in Lau Sai Kai (ed.), The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration: the First Five Years of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, HK: Chinese University of Hong Kong.
2001 "The Political Economy of the HKSAR's Fiscal Policy", in Joseph Cheng (ed.), Political Development in the HKSAR, HK: City University of Hong Kong Press.
1999 "Hong Kong in the Midst of a Currency Crisis,” in Hong Kong: the Superparadox: Life after Revision to China, edited by James Hsiung, NY: St. Martin's Press, pp. 59-74.
1998 "The Rise and Fall of the Hong Kong Economy,” The Other Hong Kong Report, HK: Chinese University of HK Press, pp. 139-153.
1996 "The Political Economy of Labour Market Policies" in Managing the New Hong Kong Economy (ed. by David Mole), New York: Oxford University Press, 76-94.
1995 "Inflation: New Risks for the Hong Kong Economy," in The Other Hong Kong Report, HK:CUHK Press, pp.183-195.
1994 "The Economy,"(in Chinese) in Graphic Trends: Hong Kong, HK: Commercial Press, pp.28-49.
1993 "The Economy,"(in Chinese/and separately in English with title Hong Kong in Focus) in Graphic Trends: Hong Kong, HK: Commercial Press, 1993, pp.23-26.
"Economics of social security," Hong Kong in Transition, One Country Two Systems Economic Research Institute (in Chinese) 1993, pp.582-593.
"International Labour Migration: the Case of Hong Kong" (with P.W.Liu andK.C.Lam), International Labour Migration in East Asia, Tokyo: United Nations University.
1992 "Towards Better Deposit Protection for Hong Kong," in Y.C. Jao (ed.)Deposit Insurance: Issues and Evaluation, Hong Kong: The Chartered Institute of Bankers, July, pp.39-51.
  "The Purpose and Nature of Social Security" (in Chinese), in The Future of Social Welfare, edited by the Federation of Hong Kong Social Work Students(1992).
"Labour and Employment" in The Other Hong Kong Report, pp.197-212, Chinese University Press, ed. by Joseph Cheng and Paul Kwong.
"Economic Cooperation between China and Hong Kong," in Collected Essays from the Conference on Beijing-Hong Kong Enterprise Development, September(in Chinese)
1991 "Labour and Employment" in The Other Hong Kong Report, Chinese University Press, ed. by Y.W.Sung and M.K.Lee.
"The Role of the Government and the Vigor of the Private Sector," in Joseph Cheng(ed.) Creating a New Era for Hong Kong,H.K.:Breakthrough, 1991(in Chinese)
1989 "The Role of Government", in Reiitsu Kojima(ed.) Focus on Asia: Industrialisation of Hong Kong, Institute of Developing Economies, Tokyo, l989(in Japanese).
"The State of the Economy," in T.L.Tsim and Bernard Luk(ed.)The Other Hong Kong Report, Chinese University of Hong Kong Press, pp.63-98.
1986 "The Hong Kong Economy: a l985 Review," in Kwan & Chan(ed.)Hong Kong Society: A Reader, Hong Kong: Writers & Publishers Co-operative, pp.45-69.

(24 items)

[Back to top]

China Studies

2006  “A Sustainable Currency Regime for Hong Kong and the Mainland,” in Lok Sang Ho and Robert Ash (eds.), China, Hong Kong, and the World Economy: Studies on Globalization, Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 101-118.
2006  “Introduction,”(with Robert Ash) in Lok Sang Ho and Robert Ash (eds.), China, Hong Kong, and the World Economy: Studies on Globalization, Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 101-118.
1998 "China's Road to Exchange Rate Liberalisation, in Joseph Cheng(ed.) China in the Post-Deng Era, Chinese University Press, 453-470.
1996 Fiscal Relations between Shanghai and the Central Government,"(with K.Y.Tsui)in Yue-man Yeung and Yun-wing Sung(ed.): Shanghai: Transformation and Modernation under China's Open Door Policy, HK: Chinese University Press, pp.153-169.
1995 "An Exploration of Fiscal Relations between Shanghai and Central," in Pan MinShang, Sung Yun-wing, Dong Xinbao, and Yu Zhong Gen(ed.) Hu Jing Gang Zhuanjia Zhonglun Shanghai Fazhan(Shanghai's Development: Views of Experts from Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong), Shanghai People's Press, pp.118-128.
1995 "Environmental Management in South China," in Wong, Chu, Chen, and Ma(ed.) Environmental Research in Pearl River and Coastal Area, Guangzhou: Guangdong Higher Education Press.
1994 "Financial Restructuring" in China Review 1994,(ed. by Lo Chi-kin and Maurice Brosseau, HK: Chinese University Press, 1994,pp.10.1-10.15.
1993 "Central-provincial fiscal relations" in Joseph Cheng and Maurice Brossau(ed.) China Review, CUHK Press.
"China and Hong Kong: Economic Partnership", (with Y.W.Sung), in The Chinese Economy in the 1990s, the Institute of Developing Economies, Japan, pp.77-88.
"An Evaluation of China's Monetary System & Policy," co-authored with He Xiang-wei of Beijing, in Yu Jing-yuan, Shi Ruo-hua, and Hsueh tien-tung(ed.) Economic Reform and Development in China, Hong Kong: Chinese University Press(N.Y.:St Martin's Press) (Chinese version pubished by Commercial Press in Beijing, 1990)
"A Mathematical Model of China's Monetary System," co-authored with He Xiang-wei, & He Lin, ibid.
"Introduction,"(with Y.C.Jao and Victor Mok) in Jao,Mok, and Ho(ed.) Economic Development in Chinese Societies: Models and Experiences, HK University Press.
"Whither China's Foreign Exchange Controls?" in Joseph Cheng(ed.)China: Modernization in the l989s, H.K: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press; N.Y: St.Martin's Press, l989, pp.461-494.

(13 items)

[Back to top]


2006 “Introduction: Happiness as the Only Ultimate Objective of Public Policy,” in Happiness and Public Policy: Theory, Cases, and Implications, edited by Yew-Kwang Ng and Lok Sang Ho, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 47-66.
  “The Three Happinesses and Public Policy,” in Happiness and Public Policy: Theory, Cases, and Implications, edited by Yew-Kwang Ng and Lok Sang Ho, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 47-66.
2002 "The Logistics Industry in Hong Kong", with Thomas Voon, Hong Kong in Focus: Political and Econmic Issues, in S.G. Rioni (ed.), Nova Science Publishers.
  "Introduction", Exchange Rate Regimes and Macroeconomic Stability, joint editor with Chi-wa Yuen), Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 1-5.
  "Bringing about Realistic Exchange Rates: a Post-Asian Financial Crisis Perspective", Exchange Rate Regimes and Macroeconomic Stability, joint editor with Chi-wa Yuen), Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 133-144.
  "An Exploratory Essay on the Economics of Chinese Medicine",  Chinese Medicine in Modern Society, in Frank Fu (ed.), HK: Baptist University (a refereed publication of the Dr. Stephen Hui Research Centre for Physical Recreation and Wellness, pp. 22-28.
2001 "Realistic Exchange Rates: A Post-Financial Crisis Perspective," in James Hsiung and Brian Bridges (eds.), 21st Century World Order & the Asia Pacific, NY: Palgrave, pp. pp. 329-339.
  "A Multiple Country Rule of Origin to Help Resolve Trade Disputes," (in English) in Y.Y. Kueh and W. M. Zheng (eds.), Economic Globalization and Sino-American Trade Relation (Jingji Quanqiuhua yu Zhong-mei Jingmou Guanxi), Bejing: Social Science Literature Publishers (Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe), pp. 325-337.
1995 "Is there a link among Confucianism, institutions, and economic performance?"(with T.B.Lin) in Confucianism and Economic Development, ed. by Tzong-shian Yu and Joseph Lee, Taipei: Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, pp.345-367.
1992 "Government Policy for the Taxicab Industry,"(in Chinese) in L.C.Chau and Y.C.Tse(ed) A New Perspective on Economics(Jingjixue Xinlun), HK: Commercial Press.
1990 "Forward," in John Naisbitt and Patricia Aburdene, Megatrends 2000, Publications(Holdings)Ltd.

(11 items)

[Back to top]


Book Review and Conference Proceedings

2002 Book Review of Y.C. Jao, "The Asian Financial Crisis and the Ordeal of Hong Kong", by Y.C. Jao, Westport: Quorum Books, 2001, in China Quarterly, Volume 171, September 2002, pp. 741-779.
1993 "How Hong Kong and China can step up their economic relations", in Jinggang Qiye Fazhan Yantaohui Lunwenji( Collected essays from the Beijing Hong Kong Conference on Enterprise Development, Beijing, 1992.(In Chinese)
1989 "Is there a link among Confucianism, institutions, and economic performance?"(with T.B.Lin) Proceedings on Conference on Confucianism and Economic Development in East Asia, May 29-31, l989, Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, Taipei, Taiwan, pp.477-499.
1988 Book Review: The Hong Kong Bank in Late Imperial China 1864-1902, On an Even Keel, by Frank King(Cambridge University Press), 1988, Journal of Oriental Studies, Vol.XXVI, No.l, pp.152-156.

(4 items)


Contributions to Student-Edited Academic Journals

1995 "Review and Outlook of the Linked Exchange Rate System," Economics Channel, Issue 1994-95, Economics Society, HKUSU, pp.24-28(article in Chinese).
1988 "Facts and Myths about Inflation,"Journal of Economics Society, 1988-89, pp.27-29.
1987 "An Adjustable Linked Exchange Rate System for Hong Kong and for China," Economics Journal, HKUSU, pp.15-17,1987.
1984 "On Congestion Pricing in a Network," Journal of Economics Society, Chinese University of Hong Kong,l984/85.
1974 "An Essay on Economic Systems," Economics Journal, Economics Society, U. of H.K.,1974, pp.14-15.
1973 "On Demand and Supply Curves," Economics Journal, Economics Society, University of Hong Kong, pp.1-3.
1971 "Economics and Wisdom: Pollution Problems as a Point of Departure," Economics Journal, Economic Society, University of Hong Kong, l97l.

(7 items)

[Back to top]

Working Papers

2005 "Happiness and Public Policy"
2004 "The World Currency Unit as a Real Anchor for a Sustainable Exchange Rate Regime"
"Short Run Housing Market Dynamics: An Application to Hong Kong," with Donald R. Haurin and Gary Wong.

"The Nexus between Housing and the Macro economy: Hong Kong as a Case Study," with Gary Wong.


"Privatization of Public Housing: How it Caused a Deep Recession in Hong Kong," with Raymond Tse and Gary Wong.

1993 "An Optimal Regulatory Framework for The Taxicab Industry"


Other Publications (selections only)

2008 "Oil-rich Nations' Duty to Help Subsidies Food", South China Morning Post, April 23."
  "The Government's Proposed Health-care-funding Model Lacks a Vital Element-incentives", South China Morning Post, April 9.
2003 "The World Currency Unit: Towards More Efficient and more Stable Financial Markets", Kudan Square, The Newsletter of Institute of International Economics Studies, No. 16, September 2003.

Policy Diary by Ho Lok Sang (2002-2003)

  1. 立竿見影之法何以棄而不用”, 東方日報, 24 June 2003.

  2. 價格升跌未必意味供求失衡”, 東方日報, 17 June 2003.

  3. 香港有多窮  復甦有多遠”, 東方日報, 10 June 2003.

  4. 制度與社會資本的關係”, 東方日報, 3 June 2003.

  5. 傳媒作為社會資本的角色”, 東方日報, 27 May 2003.

  6. 領導力為社會資本核心”, 東方日報, 20 May 2003.

  7. 為旅客染SARS承保挽信心”, 東方日報, 13 May 2003.

  8. 貨幣政策的局限”, 東方日報, 6 May 2003.

  9. 政府在粵港融合中之角色”, 東方日報, 29 April 2003.

  10. 肺炎印證錯失時機代價非輕”, 東方日報, 22 April 2003.

  11. 善用槓桿作用重振經濟”, 東方日報, 15 April 2003.

  12. 棄守聯匯無助減輕財赤”, 東方日報, 8 April 2003.

  13. 增加進口人民幣升值”, 東方日報, 1 April 2003.

  14. 增值高低由供求決定”, 東方日報, 25 March 2003.

  15. 切實急救本土經濟命脈”, 東方日報, 18 March 2003.

  16. 救港良方必須救樓市”, 東方日報, 11 March 2003.

  17. 產業「空洞化」象徵經濟高度發展”, 東方日報, 4 March 2003.

  18. 香港經濟轉型之迷思”, 東方日報, 25 February 2003.

  19. 制訂財政預算  應膽大而心細”, 東方日報, 18 February 2003.

  20. 政府宜小心處理財赤”, 東方日報, 11 February 2003.

  21. 揚棄思想包袱  腳踏實地施政”, 東方日報, 4 February 2003.

  22. 解讀市場  順應市場  調節供應”, 東方日報, 28 January 2003.

  23. 救港如救命  萬勿再延誤”, 東方日報, 21 January 2003.

  24. 請珍惜培育年輕一代”, 東方日報, 16 January 2003.

  25. 樓市為本土經濟基石”, 東方日報, 7 January 2003.

  26. 掌握道理  致勝之本”, 東方日報, 31 December 2002.

  27. “Reversing negative equity trap”, China Daily, 30 December 2002.

  28. 須修正竭澤而漁售樓策略”, 東方日報, 24 December 2002

  29. 論竭澤而漁的售樓策略”, 信報, 20 December 2002

  30. 政府應否鼓勵港人置業”, 東方日報, 17 December 2002.

  31. 財富效應壓倒一切”, 東方日報, 10 December 2002.

  32. 營商環境所本為何”, 東方日報, 3 December 2002.

  33. 樓價暴跌為通縮根源”, 東方日報, 26 November 2002.

  Policy Diary by Ho Lok Sang (Others)
  "Human Spirituality and Happiness", 7 May 2003.
  "Reversing the negative equity trap", China Daily, Hong Kong Edition, December 30.
  1.  "如何解決香港失業問題"信報, 8月14日
  2. "Keeping the dream alive", SCMP, 7 August 2002.
  3. "香港還會復甦嗎?", 信報, 7月25日.
  4. "Legendary resilience fails us", SCMP, 24 July 2002
  5. ."大學「錢跟學生走」好心做壞事", 明報, 4月27日.
  6. "Education Record Shows up Critics", SCMP, 2 March 2002.
  7. "Lessons from Argentina," SCMP, 21 January 2002.
  8. "When will the Hong Kong economy revive its vitality?" in Mingpao Monthly, no.2, pp.25-26. (non-refereed).

  9. "Competitiveness cannot be increased by depressing housing prices", in Bauhinia Magazine, April 2002 (no.138), (non-refereed).

  1. "World's woes need united front", SCMP, Sept. 21, 2001. 
  2. "The Living Dao:The Art and Way of Living A Rich & Truthful Life"
  3. "致特首董建華先生、曾蔭權司長、梁振英先生、各大政黨、廣大市民的公開信"
  4.  "Equity Effects, Housing Market, & the Macro Economy: the Hong Kong Case," with Gary Wong.
  5.  "Basket Case Points to Stability", SCMP, 13 June 2001.
  6. "房屋政策再定位", 明報, 9月11日. 
  7. "Reviving Confidence the Top Priority", SCMP, September 26, 2001

  8. "Deficit pays in tough times", South China Morning Post(Business), August 15.

  9. "Education should aim to unearth the potential of children", South China Morning Post, Jan.15 (Annual Review magazine).

  1. "Strong yen is 'bad medicine' for world", SCMP, Aug. 13, 2000.
  2. "政府錯在摧毀地產橋樑", 明報, 8月24日.
  3. "Bring competitiveness Home to People," SCMP, July 18.
  4. "香港房屋政策究竟出了甚麼問題", 經濟導報, 總第2626期, 7月3日. 
  5. "Address housing before raising tax," SCMP, February, 2000.
  6. "Fairer Bank System for the Man in the Street", SCMP(Analysis), November 4.
  1. "The Way to a Healthier Health Care System," Policy Bulletin, May/June, No. 11.
  2. "Tax Rebates Give the Wrong Incentives," Policy Bulletin, March/April, No.10.
  3. "The Value of Public Service Reform," SCMP, July 7.
  4. "Community must Cater for its Own Well Being," SCMP, April 20.
  1. "Need for School Equality," SCMP, August 10.
  2. "Cost of Bursting Property Bubble," SCMP, June 15.
  3. "經濟災情聞問切", 5月31日傳真到各大政黨.
  4. "樓市重挫  經濟重傷", 信報, 5月22日.
  5. "Depressing Home Truths," SCMP, May 18.
  6. "Largest Threat to the Economy Comes from the Largest Action of the Government," Mingpao, March 26.
  7. "Policy Blunder of the Century," South China Morning Post, March 24.
  8. "Credit Squeeze is Wrong," South China Morning Post, January 14.
  1. "Flaws in Housing Policy," South China Morning Post, December 30.
  2. "Reforms Needed to Deter Manipulations," South China Morning Post, November 10. 1997    
  3. "High Interest Rate in Defence of the HK Dollar Could Be Counter-Productive," Hong Kong Economic Times, November 8.
  4. "Hail a Good Taxi Service," South China Morning Post(Analysis), October 7.
  5. "Impossible to Make Accurate Projection for Labour Importation Quotas," Mingpao, July 28.
  6. "Human Nature Education or Sex Education," Mingpao, July 25.
  7. "A Wish for China to Be a Democratic Model of the World," Mingpao, July 9, (in Chinese).
  8. "Intervene, but not Overdo it," Sunday Morning Post, Focus, June 15, 1997.
  9. "Right Care at the Right Price," South China Morning Post, Analysis, May 12, 1997.
  10. "An Economist’s View of Health Care Reform," The HK Society of Health Service Executives, Vol. 5, issue 1, March 1997, pp.4-5.
  1. "Pricing of the Cross Harbour Tunnels," Newsletter of CAPS/CPPS, Lingnan College October.
  2. "The Use and Abuse of the User Pays Principle," Newsletter of CAPS/CPPS, Lingnan College, April.
  1.  "An Assessment of State Enterprise Reform with Particular Reference to Shanghai," China News Analysis (March 1995)(Socio-cultural Research Centre, College of Law, Fu Jen University)
  1. "Estimating the benefits of environmental improvement," CUCES Newsletter, Nov.
  2. "The Market Approach to Environmental Management," CUCES Newsletter, May.
  1. "The Regulation Approach to Environmental Management," CUCES Newsletter, November.
  2. "Public vs. Private Ownership of Environmental Resources," CUCES Newsletter, March.
  1. "A Proposal for Retirement Protection,"(in Chinese) in Bauhinia Magagine, March, pp.34-35.
  2. "Environmental Resources are Scarce," in CUCES Newsletter, June.
  3. "Some Observations on the Deposit Protection Scheme Consultation Paper," HKCER Letters, March,pp.4-5.
  1.  "An Index Future for Property Prices," HKCER Letters, November 1991, HK Centre for Economic Research, CUHK (
  2. "The Costs and Benefits of the Port and Airport Development Project," H.K.Economic Journal Monthly, November.
  1. "A Proposal for Adaptive Linked Exchange Rate System," Hong Kong Economic Journal Monthly, Jan.
  2. "Did Stock Index Futures Trading Aggravate the Stock Market Crash?--A Statistical Analysis," Hong Kong Economic Journal Monthly, August.
  3. "The Securities Review Committee Report Failed to Address the Cause for the Severity of the Stock Market Crash," H.K. Economic Journal Monthly, July.
  4. "Economists Face Serious Difficulties in Changing the Course of Public Policy," H.K.Economic Journal, July 8.
  5. "An Economic Analysis of Representative Government," Hong Kong Economic Journal Monthly, May.
  6. "A Proposal to Relieve Congestion for the MTR: the Early Bird Pass," Hong Kong Economic Journal, May l3.
  7. "The Proposed Reform of Education System Uneconomical," Hong Kong Economic Journal, June 30.
  8. "World Economic Outlook," Hong Kong Economic Journal, May 21 & April 16.
  1. "Volcker's Anti-inflation Policy Left a Legacy of Economic Ills for the World: a post-crash analysis," H.K.Economic Journal Monthly, December l987, pp.40-41.
  2. "On Crisis Economics," Hong Kong Economic Journal, Nov.6.
  3. "Social Welfare: Not a Free Ride for the Lucky Ones," in Welfare Digest, H.K. Council of Social Services, March.
  4. "An Analysis of the Balanced Budget, with Reference to the Linked Exchange Rate System," Hong Kong Economic Journal Monthly, June.
  5. "A Review of the Policy on Foreign-hired Domestic Helpers," H.K.Economic Journal, May 2.
  6. "A Proposal for Social Security for Labour," H.K. Economic Journal Monthly, May.
  7. "A Review of the Salaries Tax," Hong Kong Economic Journal, April l.
  8. "Superiority of the Pension System over the Central Provident Fund System," Hong Kong Economic Journal Monthly, March.
  9. "Short Term Prospects of the Hong Kong Economy," Express News, January 26.
  10. "An Analysis of the H.K.Tax System with Recommendations," Express News, January l9.
  11. "A Capitalistic Way of Resolving the Bourgeoise Liberalism Problem," Hong Kong Economic Journal, January 22.
1985 "Coming to Grips with Water Pollution in Hong Kong," Green Productivity, Hong Kong Productivity Council, October.


[Back to top]

Commissioned Studies

2008 "A Study of the Talent Gap in the Financial Industry", HK Securities Institute
  "Survey of ACCA members' Views on Healthcare Financing in HK", commissioned by ACCA Hong Kong
2006 "A Review of HK's Tax system: Survey of ACCA members", ACCA.
2005 "Hong Kong", Asian Development Outlook, Asian Development Bank.
2004 "Hong Kong", Asian Development Outlook, Asian Development Bank.
2000 "Recovering from a Deep Recession: Hong Kong 1999-2000" United Nations Development Program, Beijing Office.
  "The Logistics Industry in Hong Kong: Is there a case for government support?" IC Surveyors Ltd./Kerry Logistics(with Thomas Voon)
1999 "Return to Education," commissioned by the Education Commission(with Dr. Xiang-dong Wei, and others)
1997 "Study of Economic Aspects of Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Health," Advisor to EHS Consultants Ltd. on a project awarded by the Environmental Protection Department.
  "The Future of Hong Kong’s Agriculture," commissioned by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department via HK Polytechnic University.(Chapter on Land Use and Environment)
  "Impact of Construction Labour Shortage on Hong Kong," with Thomas Voon, commissioned by the HK Construction Association.
1996 "Age Discrimination in Employment," Commissioned by Education and Manpower Branch with Wei Xiang-dong), April.
1995 "Economic Outlook, Hong Kong 1995-97", Asian Development Bank.
1994 "An Economic Analysis of Continuing Education: Costs, Benefits, Trends, and Issues (with P.W.Liu and Y.P.Chung, sponsored by the UPGC), August 1994.
  "The Hong Kong Economy: 1994-96," 1994(for Asian Development Bank Asian Outlook Workshop, Manila, October.
1993 "The Hong Kong Economy: 1993-95," 1993(for Asian Development Bank Asian Outlook Workshop, Manila, October.
1992 "The Hong Kong Economy: 1992-94," 1992(for Asian Development Bank Asia Outlook Workshop, Manila, November.
1989 Research Associate, project on Hong Kong economy as commissioned by Institute of Developing Economies, Japan.
1987 "A Study on Hong Kong Tax Policy"(119 pages), with Edward K.Y.Chen & Shu Hung Tang, 1987(consultancy report for HK Society of Accountants).

(17 items)

[Back to top]

Research Papers Completed Since 1995

2007    "An Emission Trading System"

2006    "Excessive Burden Insurance, Fee Reduction Insurance, And Medisave: A Comparsion"

2006    "The Ladder Effect and Hong Kong Housing Market's Boom and Bust Cycle", with Gary Wong, under review.

2005  Domino Effects within Interrelated Housing Markets: The Influence of House Price Appreciation and Household Wealth (with Yue MA and Don Haurin)

2005    “The Housing Ladder and Hong Kong Housing Market’s Boom and Bust Cycle” (with Gary Wong) resubmitted to Journal of Housing Economics.

2005    Universal Fully Funded Pensions versus Individualized Retirement Savings Accounts: A Comparison of Fully-Funded Pension Options (with Stuart Wilson)

2005.     “A Theory of Health and Health Policy” (further revision in process)

2004      “An Alternative Roadmap to Middle East Peace.”

2004    “Globalization, Unemployment, and Excess Capacity: A Model and a Conjecture”(further revision in process)

1998    “The Insurance Value of Road Pricing”

1997    “A Long Term Monetary Strategy for Hong Kong and China”

1995     “Ex Ante Welfare Maximization and Road Pricing” (with Pun Wing-chung)

1995      “Congestion Pricing and the Value of Time” (with Pun Wing-chung)


Conferences & Seminars

Presented a paper, “Regional Disparity and Fiscal Equalization”, Shanghai Forum,  Fudan University, May 25-27, 2008.

Presented a paper, “Guarding against housing price bubbles: Lessons from the Subprime Debacle”, The Fifth Conference on Sino-American Economic Relations, organized by American Studies Institute, China Academy of Social Sciences, Lingnan University, Chu Hai College, and China America Economic Association, April 25, 2008, Hong Kong.

Presented a paper, “A Sustainable Currency Regime for East Asia”, ASSA Meeting, New Orleans, CEANA/ASSA session “Asian Economic and Financial Integration: A Growth Map for the Future,” Jan 5 2008.

Presented a talk on “A Cohort-based Fully Funded Pension Program” at the Pension Forum, organized by HK Council of Social Service, Synergy Net, and the Joint Alliance for Universal Retirement Protection, December 2, 2006.

Presented paper: “The Three Happinesses: Evidence from Hong Kong,” at the International Symposium on the Well-Being of Nations – A Cross-Cultural Dialogue, Graduate Institute of Philosophy, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, November 5-6, 2006.

Presented paper: “Global Imbalances: Insight from a Monetary Conditions Index,” international conference on “Adjustment of Global Imbalance: Macroeconomic Policies and Institutional Reform” Central University of Finance and Economics (CUFE), Beijing, October 24-25, 2007

Presented paper: ““Representation and Democracy: What Have We Learnt” International Interdisciplinary Conference on “Lessons from History”, June 9-10, 2006, IHSS, Lingnan University(also organizer)

Presented paper: “Happiness and Public Policy,” at the conference on Progress, Happiness, and Public Policy, organized by the Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences and Centre for Public Policy Studies, June 24-25, 2005.

Presented paper: “The World Currency Unit: A New Anchor for East Asian Economies,” conference on "New Monetary and Echange-Rate Arrangements in East Asia." Bellagio, May 22-27, 2006, organized by George M. Vonfurstenberg, funded by Rockefeller Foundation.

Presented a talk on “Risks and Opportunities in China,” Citi Group briefing for investors, Hyderabad, May 4, 2006.

Presented a paper on “Alternative Policy Options to Help the Working Poor,” International Symposium on the Working Poor, May 13, 2006(coorganized by Oxfam and Centre for Public Policy Studies, Lingnan University)

Presented a talk on Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalized World at the Fair Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility session, Hong Kong Trade and Development Symposium, organized by the HK Peoples’ Council for Sustainable Development and the HK Council of Social Service in collaboration with International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 15th December 2005 (Thursday) Hong Kong Exhibition Centre.

Spoke at Innovation Expo 05 Forum: “Industrial Revolution in the 21st Century: HK’s new industrial future” HK Convention and Exhibition Centre, organized by the Productivity Council, September 29, 2005.

Served as discussant on “Optimal Currency Basket for Asia,” in Asian Economic Panel Meeting, Keio University, Tokyo, March 6-7, 2005. Sponsored by the Earth Institute, Columbia University,Keio University and Korea Institute for Internatonal Economic Policy.

Served as discussant on “Japan’s Fiscal Policy,” in Asian Economic Panel meeting, The Earth Institute, Columbia University, October 8-9, 2004.

Presented a paper on “The Nexus between Housing and the Macroeconomy, ”  and another on “New Monetary Rules” at the Western Economic Association International Conference, July 11-15, Denver 2003.

Presented a paper on “The HK Fiscal System as a Model of the Henry George Single Tax” at the WEAI Pacific Rim Conference, Taiwan, January 9-12, 2003.

Spoke on Privatization of the Hong Kong International Airport, November 20, 2003, HK General Chamber of Commerce, HK Convention and Exhibition Centre.

Spoke on “How to Sustain the Recovery of the Property Market,” Organized by Metro Finance Radio and HKEA, September 27, 2003.

Spoke on “How to Help the Negative Equity Homeowners” Organized by Whampao  Residents Association.  September 27, 2003.

Presented a paper on “Education Reform in Hong Kong: the Ideal versus the Reality about Competition,” HK Educational Research Association International Conference 2002, December 20-21, 2002, Chinese University of HK.

Presented a paper on “The Volatility of Macroeconomic Fundamentals under Alternative Exchange Rate Regimes,” at the 77th Annual WEAI Conference at Seattle, 2002.

Presented a paper on “The Impact of Housing Policy on the Economy: Hong Kong as a Case of Study,” at the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association Conference, Cancun May 6-8, 2001.

Served as Discussant on “Real exchange rate changes and the impact of US trade on China” at International Conference Greater China and the WTO, organized by the City University of Hong Kong March 24-26, 2001.

Presented a paper on “Economic Ecology: the Case of Hong Kong,” at the Western Economic Assn. International Conference at Vancouver, June 29-July 3 2000.

Presented a paper on “Savings Instruments, Bubbles, and Financial Crises,” Workshop on 21st Century World Order and the Asia Pacific, Lingnan University, 7-8 April 2000.

Presented a paper on “The transition to a multiple country of origin rule,” International Conference on Global Production: Specialization and Trade, organized by the Centre for Asian Pacific Studies, Lingnan University, Centre for Economic Development, HKUST, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, and HK Trade Development Counci,.2000.

Presented a paper on “Toward a New Monetary Order: The World Currency Unit and the Global Indexed Bond,” at the Western Economic Assn. International Conference in San Diego, July 6-10, 1999.

Presented a paper(jointly with Gary Wong and Xiang-dong Wei) on “Changes of Wage Differentials by Skills and Education Qualifications in Hong Kong,” at Conference on Development and Inequality: East and West, organized by the CPPS and the Royal Holloway College, November 11-12 1998.

Served as speaker on “Retargeting the Needy and Revitalizing the Able,” at the ICSW 70th Anniversary Seminar on “Balancing Economic and Social Development- A Renewed Ideal amidst Economic Downturn,” co-organized by the HK Council of Social Service and the International Council on Social Welfare, 18 December 1998.

Served as speaker in the session “Coping with the Crisis: Greater China and its Neighbours” at the conference on “Withstanding the Financial Storm: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China,” a roundtable co-sponsored by the Brookings Institution and the Institute for National Policy Research, Taipei at the Brookings Institution, Washington DC USA on 26 October 1998; also in the Symposium on Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China in a Changing Strategic and Economic Context cosponored by East Asian Institute, Columbia University and Institute for National Policy Research, held at Columbia University, USA, on 28 Oct 1998; and the Symposium cosponsored by the Hoover Institution, Stanford University and the Institute for National Policy Research on 29 October 1998.

Served as discussant at conference  entitled “Developments in Social Policy for Elderly People: Hong Kong and International Perspectives,” which was organized by the Asia-Pacific Institute of Ageing Studies, Lingnan College on Nov.30, 1998.

Presented a talk on “The Asian Financial Crisis and Economic Security,” at the First Millennium Dinner organized by the HK Society of Asia & Pacific 21 and the Hong Kong Institute of Business Studies, Lingnan College, Oct.13 1998.

Presented a talk on “How to Revive the Hong Kong Economy,” at the Public Forum organized by the Hong Kong Economic Association with the HK Public Policy Research Institute, Convention Centre, October 8, 1998.

Presented a talk on “Health Care Financing: a Model for Hong Kong” in Seminar on Hong Kong Health Care Financing, Sept. 29(Tuesday) HKCouncil of Social Service held at Windsor Building, 2:30 p.m.

Presented a talk on “Alternative Modes of Financing Elderly Care: Ability to Pay, User Pays, and Self-financing” Conference organized by the HK Society for the Aged on the 20th Anniversary of the Society, October 31, 1997.

Presented a paper on “Bubbles, Speculation, and the Housing Market in Hong Kong,” presented at the Asian Real Estate Society Conference at HKU on October 21, 1997.

Presented a paper on “Long Term Monetary Strategy for HK and China,” at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, October 17, 1997.

Presented a paper on “A Multiple Country of Origin Rule,” Pacific Economic Cooperation Council XII Meeting, Santiago, Sept.29-Oct.2, 1997.

Presented a paper on “Poverty: What and What Not to Do in Policy,”  presented at the Social Welfare Development into the 21st Century Conference organized by the HK Council of Social Service, HK Polytechnic University, September 24, 1997.

Presented a paper on “Long Term Monetary Strategy for Hong Kong and China,” at International Conference on the Economic Development and Transformation of the East Asian Economies, Chinese University of Hong Kong and Journal of International Trade and Development, July 27-28 1997.

Presented a paper on Health Care System: the Case for Change,” in a conference on Health Care Financing and Delivery organized by the HK Society of Health Service Executives, January 7 1997.

Presented a paper on “Outlook of the Hong Kong Economy for 1997,” PEO Conference organized by PECC , March 17-18, 1997, Osaka.

Presented a paper on Hong Kong in the 21st Century,” International Symposium on the East Asia Region, Okinawa, Okinawa Economic Assn. 22-25 Feb. 1997.

Presented a paper on "Wage Subsidies as a Labour Market Policy Tool," in 3rd Asian Regional Congress, International Industrial Relations Association, Sept. 30-Oct.4 1996, Taipei, Taiwan.

Presented a paper on "Institutional Foundations of a Just Society," in 8th Annual Conferene of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, University of Geneva, 12-14 July 1996.

Presented a paper on "A Universal Fully Funded Pension Scheme," 2nd Biennial Pacific Rim Allied Economic Organizations Conference, organized by Western Economic Association, Jan. 10-15, 1996, Hong Kong.

Presented a paper on "Rationality and Culture" at Liangan sibian ershi shiji wenhua yanbian ji ershiyi shiji wenhua zhanwang(Conference on cultural change in the 20th century and prospects for cultural change in the 21st century on the two shores and four lands), organized by the Hong Kong Culture Transmission Association, June 17-19, 1994, Hong Kong.

Presented a paper on "Environmental Management: a Regional Perspective", Western Economic Association Conference, Hong Kong, January 8-13, 1994.

Presented papers on the Hong Kong Economic Outlook, Asian Development Bank, Manila, 1992, 1993, 1994.

Presented a paper on "Towards Better Retirement Protection," Academic Forum on After Retirement: Income Support in an Ageing Population co-sponsored by Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, City Polytechnic of Hong Kong and Central Policy Unit, Hong Kong Government, October 26, 1993.

Presented a paper on "privatisation of public housing" at the Housing Conference organized by the CUHK Dept. of Economics and HK Polytechnic Dept. of Business Studies, December 19, 1992.     

Presented a paper on the Hong Kong Economy at the Asian Development Bank Asian Outlook Workshop, Nov. 4-6, 1992.

Presented a paper on the economic relationship between Hong Kong and China in Beijing: Conference on Enterprise Development, sponsored by the Taipingshan Jaycees and the Institute of Management Sciences, Sept.1992.

Presented a paper "Regional balance of payments: an interpretation" at the Pacific Regional Science Conference Organization Second Summer Institute at Taipei, July 19-24,1992.

Presented a paper "Compensation, risk, and efficiency" at the Pacific Rim Council on Urban Development Forum on the Planning Ordinance, Jan. 7, 1992.

Presented a paper(jointly authored with P.W.Liu and K.C.Lam), "International Labour Migration: the case of Hong Kong", at the Second Japan-Asean Forum on International Labour Migration in East Asia, 26-27, UN University, September 1991, Tokyo.

Presented a paper at the Australasian Economic Modelling Conference, "Steady State Equilibrium and Macroeco­nomic Policy," August 27-30, 1991, in Port Douglas, Australia.

Presented a paper with Prof. T.B. Lin at Conference on Confucianism and Economic Development in East Asia, "Is there a link among Confucianism, Institutions,and Economic Performance?" sponsored by Chung‑Hua Institution for Economic Research, Taipei, May 29‑31, l989.

Served as speaker at Symposium on Deposit Insurance, Hong Kong Economic Association, 1991.

Presented a paper "Income support programs for the elderly," at the Seminar on Gerontology: Trends and Some Issues, organized by the HK Assn. of Gerontology, Dec. 8, 1990.

Served as speaker at Symposium on Sales Tax, Hong Kong Economic Association,1989.

Served as speaker at Symposium on Central Provident Fund, Hong Kong Economic Association, 1988.

Presented two papers at Conference on China's National Economic Development, April 29‑30, l988, CUHK. Titles: "Reforming China's Monetary System"; "A Quantitative Analysis of China's Monetary System."

Served as discussant at Western Economic Association Conference, January 8-13,1994 Hong Kong.

Served as discussant at Second Conference on Pacific Basin Business, Economics, and Finance, HK:CUHK, May 27-28,1994.

Served as discussant for "Economic Development on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait,and Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation", June 9-10, 1994, CUHK.

Served as Discussant at International Conference on the Overseas Chinese(in Asia) between the two World World Wars, Sept.l8‑l9, l987 at CUHK.     

Presented a paper at the Atlantic Economic Conference in New York, Sept.3‑6, l987 (Title: Long Run   Equilibrium and Macroeconomic Policy).

Presented a paper on "Whither China's foreign exchange control?" in Conference on China's Special Economic Zone and Open Door Policy, April l987,CUHK.

Served as chairman and discussant at Symposium on Economic Development in Chinese Societies: Models & Experiences, Dec.l8‑l9, l986, Hong Kong.

Presented a paper entitled "Productivity‑based Real Incomes Policy" at the l8th International Atlantic Economic Conference in Montreal in November l984.

Presented many seminars at the HKU and at the Chinese University on various policy-related topics.



Refereeing and Other Professional Activities

Managing Editor, Pacific Economic Review, published by Blackwell Publishers, 1996-2004

Editorial Board, Pacific Economic Review, 2004-now

Chief Editor, The Lingnan Commentary, 2001-2005

Editor, Joint CPPS/CAPS Newsletter, Lingnan College/Lingnan University, 1996-2000

Editorial Board, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis. Jan. 2002 to December 2004.

Referee for the Research Grants Council, HK University Press, Hong Kong Medical Journal (HK Medical Association), China Quarterly, Contemporary Economic Policy (U.S.:Western Economic Association.), Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, The Energy Journal, Pacific Economic Review (U.K.: Blackwell Publishers), Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, Regional Studies (U.K.: Carfax), Social Science & Medicine (Oxford: Pergamon Press), Hong Kong Economic Papers (Hong Kong), Research Fellowship in Children's Studies, Journal of Construction Research,  HK Journal of Gerontology, the Hong Kong University Press, PharmacoEconomics (Auckland: Adis International.), Hong Kong Papers on Design and Development (Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong)

Referee to provide expert comments on various documents on H.C.Action No.A3549 of 1991, 1994.

Editor, Newsletter for the Chinese University Centre for Environmental Studies.   

Advisor, Budding Scholars Program (United College mission to South Korea) 1992: "Policy for Industrial and Technological Development"


Membership in Professional Societies and Professional Activities

Hon. Treasurer, Hong Kong Economic Association 2007-now

President, HK Economic Association, 1999-2007

Hon. Secretary, Hong Kong Economic Association since 1983; Vice-President 1997-1999

Councillor, HK Peoples’ Council For Sustainable Development, 2005-now

Advisor & Honorary Member, Chinese Economists Association in North America 2000-2003

Member, American Economic Association

Member, Western Economic Association

Founding Member, Asian Real Estate Society

Hon. Research Fellow, Economics Department, Chinese University of HK, 1995-now

Hon. Research Fellow, HK Institute for Asia Pacific Studies, Chinese University of HK, 1995-now

Research Associate, Hong Kong Energy Studies Centre, HK Baptist University 1998-now


Services to the Community

Member, Standing Committee on Civil Service Salaries and Conditions of Service (Feb. 1  2006-Jan. 31 2008)

Advisor, HK Institute of Monetary Research, Sept. 1999-now

Council Member, Peoples’ Council on Sustainable Development, 2004-now

Member, Public Affairs Forum, May 1, 2005 to April 30, 2006(Home Affairs Bureau)

Member of the Hong Kong Committee, Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, 1.4.1996-31.3.2004.

Member of Trade Policy Forum, HK Committee, April 1 1996-31.3.2004.

Official Forecaster for Hong Kong, PECC, 1996/97 and 1997/98.

Member, Business Studies and Economics Panel, Research Assessment Exercise 1999, University Grants Committee.

Member, Health Services Research Committee, Hospital Authority, March1998-Aug. 2003

Part-time Consultant, Central Policy Unit, Hong Kong SAR Government, Nov. 97-Nov.99

External Examiner, B230 Introduction to Economics, Open Learning Institute, December 1994-April 1997.

Member of Subject Committee, Sixth Form Liberal Studies, HK Examination Authority, 1993-1995

Member of Subject Committee, Economics (Secondary), Curriculum Development Council, 1992-Aug.1997

Inventor of the Early Bird Pass as introduced by the Mass Transit Railway Corporation in Hong Kong l988

Guest Speaker on numerous occasions for various charitable organizations and on both radio and television

President, Toronto Buddhist Society, 1976-1983 (Founding President)

Co-ordinator, Toronto Buddhist Federation, 1981-83.

[Back to top]


Last updated on 14 July 2008.