Department of Translation


Translation Project

Translation Project Record: 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22


Guidelines to the Translation Project (E-C and/or C-E)

1. Selection of Text
2. Working on the Project
3. Supervision
4. Format of Final Draft
5. Submission of Final Draft
6. Samples
7. Assessment Exercise
8. Assessment Guidelines

9. Assessment Rubrics
10. Translation Project Prize


1. Selection of Text


1.1. Briefing


The Project Coordinator (PC) will brief FYP students on the project and distribute a Project Approval Form towards the end of the first term prior to your final year. The PC may call other occasional meetings, as necessary.


1.2. Selection of Topics


You may choose material on any translation topic that interests you. However, you must keep in mind that these projects are part of the fourth year of a university degree program, and the material you select must be of a standard and content appropriate to this level of study.


While your translation project should be a challenge, it should not cause you agony. Texts that are too easy to translate will not be acceptable; but texts that are stylistically or thematically too difficult also will not serve the purpose of showing your ability to deal with a translation.


Before you decide on a translation approach for a text, identify your potential readership. This will give your project a direction and a theoretical frame.


Please choose a complete text, collections of texts by the same authors or on the same theme, or self-contained parts of a work, such as chapters from a book or acts from a play. In the case of book chapters, make sure you give a short summary of the book and situate the chapters within the whole work. Before you choose book chapters, read the whole book in order to get a sense of style and content, and choose a chapter that is representative of that.


You should not choose material that has already been translated, unless you believe that you will produce a substantially different version. The onus is on you to search online, look in bookshops and libraries, and consult members of staff to see whether a text has been translated already. Be particularly careful with authors who are very well known, especially for the E-C direction, as these are very likely to have been translated already. On the other hand, if you choose material from recent issues of scholarly journals, literary magazines, or other such places where quality writing is published, it is highly unlikely that it has been translated. Unless your project addresses specific issues related to re-translation via other languages, you are not advised to translate texts that are translations themselves.


You are encouraged to discuss possible texts individually with a member of staff, preferably with your first choice of a supervisor. When choosing your advisor and potential supervisor please consult the table at Sub-Section 1.6, which lists the interests of each staff member. 



1.3. Length


Translations from English to Chinese should be at least 9,000 words (excluding punctuation marks) in the original. Translations from Chinese to English should be at least 10,000 characters in length in the original (including punctuation marks). You may also choose to translate two half-length texts, one in each direction.


If two or more students are interested in the same text, the text must be divided into parts to avoid overlap.


1.4. Submission of Project Approval Form


Please write a short piece (approximately one typed page) justifying your choice of a text or texts to translate. You should identify the idiosyncratic features of the text(s), consider the merits of the text(s), and the potential readership of your translation.


Please also attach to your proposal a draft sample of your translation (about 200 English words or 300 Chinese characters) of each text you have chosen. This will help you and your advisor decide whether the piece is in fact appropriate for your interests and capabilities.


After your project has been approved and signed by a full-time teacher, take your signed approval form, with the written justifications for your choice, the sample translation(s), and a clean photocopy of the text(s) you have chosen to the Department Office and have your name checked off on the master list.


The deadline for submission of the Project Approval Form is the first weekday after the end of the examination period in the preceding term.


1.5. Allocation of Supervisors


You may propose up to four choices of supervisor on the approval form. However, there is no guarantee that your first choice can be allocated to you. Teachers will start choosing supervisees during term break, and the list of supervisors will be published at or before the beginning of the term. You may start translating before the publication of the list, but keep in mind that your final supervisor may ask you to make changes for various practical, stylistic and thematic reasons. The list below is general and tentative. Consult the faculty of your choice for specific areas of interest.


1.6. Full-time Project Supervisors' Areas of Interest (for 2021-22)


Name Preferred Direction Genres of Interest

Prof. Bai Liping

Literature, Current Affairs, Culture

Prof. BAI Yunfei

Literature, Adaptation Studies, Censorship in Translation

Prof. Hui Ting-yan, Isaac

Literature and Culture, Popular Culture, Current Affairs

Prof. Lung Wai-chu, Rachel

Any topic area except Religion, Science, History, and Technology

Prof. Sterk Darryl Cameron

Literature and Natural Science, other with approval

Prof. Li Bo 

√  √ 

Literature, culture and history 

Prof. Lin Qingyang 

√  √ 

Literature, Culture, History  

Prof. Luo Wenyan

√  √ 

Literature, Culture, Current Affairs 

Prof. MORAR Florin-Stefan

√  √ 

History of Translation, Science, Science in Translation, Digital Humanities

Dr. Wong Wai Yi, Dorothy

√  √ 

Theatre and Translation, Culture and Translation, Adaptation 

Mr. Yeung Wang Tung, Ivan

Medical translation, scientific translation, culture and translation, translating art and music 


2. Working on the Project


2.1. Back-up Copies


It is very important that you keep back-up copies of your work, especially of the parts that have been reviewed by your supervisor. In case of loss, supervisors have the right to refuse duplicating previous work.


2.2. First Draft


Please discuss a working schedule with your supervisor and submit your first draft in several regular segments. The project is meant to be a process of formative learning, which means that each reviewed part should aid you in the translation of the next part, leading to more confident work in the final independent part of the translation.


2.3. The Supervised Part


The supervised part comprises the first 6,000 words or 7,000 characters of your text. Please submit this part as a unified proofread and revised part.


2.4. The Unsupervised Part


The last part of the project is to be done unsupervised. The length of this part is 3,000 English words or Chinese characters for texts that are 9,000 words or 10,000 characters in length, and 1,500 for texts that are 4,500 words or 5,000 characters in length. This part must entirely be your own work and should not be discussed with your supervisor or other teachers.


2.5. The Introduction


You are required to write an introduction of about 2,000 English words for an English translation and 3,000 Chinese characters for a Chinese translation. The introduction should address the following aspects:


a) A brief introduction to the source text, its background, and the author.


b) A brief explanation of why you chose this particular text to translate and your deliberations about your intended readership (or ‘client’).


c) A textual analysis of the source text (text type, literary or linguistic elements, theme, style).


d) An explanation of strategies, methods, principles, or theories you have applied in the translation process. Give examples from your work.


e) A section on difficulties and solutions you have encountered in your translation process. Give examples from your work.


f)  A brief reflection on insights you have gained during the project.


2.6. Academic Integrity


The Final Year Project represents your own work. While consultations with your supervisor are part of the process, seeking outside professional editorial help for a substantial part of your project is not permitted.


3. Supervision


3.1. Importance of Supervision Sessions


Since a substantial proportion of the Department's teaching resources are allocated to the Project, which is the cornerstone course of the whole Translation Program, project supervision should be approached with the same accountability as regular classes. Should there be any serious reason to cancel a session by the student or the supervisor, it needs to be made up at a later point.


3.2. Appointment Matters


You should contact your supervisor as soon as possible in the new semester and fix a time for supervision within two weeks after the start of term. The teaching load allocated for project supervision is 15 minutes per week. This means that you and your supervisor should have at least seven 50-minute supervision sessions within the year. If necessary, extra sessions may be arranged by mutual agreement.


Please arrive punctually for each session. Late arrivals or no-shows without proper reason will still be counted toward your supervision time.


Supervision sessions are an integral part of your project management and will result in a better outcome. As final assessments by teachers other than your supervisor will be based solely on your final product, insufficient supervision might affect the outcome of your work. If you repeatedly fail to submit your work to your supervisor in good time or miss supervision meetings, your project may face a penalty of 10-100% of the mark, depending on the seriousness of the misconduct.


3.3 Final Year Project Workshop


 Throughout the year, the Department offers FYP students seven workshops conducted by our faculty. Topics address issues related to your project, and it is also a good venue for questions related to translation studies in general, the FYP in general, academic writing and style, practical translation issues, research methodology, and library use. Please refer to the tentative schedule:







13 Sep 2021 (Mon)

 16:30 - 18:29  MBG09

Theories & Practice: Literary Translation

 Dr. Tong Man, Jasmine

20 Sep 2021 (Mon)

 16:30-18:29  MBG09

Defining Characteristics of the Chinese Language

 Prof. Li Bo

27 Sep 2021 (Mon)

 16:30-18:29  MBG09

Constructing the Role of Author, Text and Reader in Translation

Dr. Tang Kin Ling

1 Nov 2021 (Mon)

 16:30-18:29  MBG09

Theories & Practice: Sociology of Translation

Prof. Luo Wenyan

24 Jan 2022 (Mon)

 16:30-18:29  MBG09

Theories & Practice: Ecotranslation

Dr. Wong Wai Yi, Dorothy

7 Feb 2022 (Mon)

 16:30-18:29  MBG09

Theories & Practice: Culture and Translation

Prof. Lin Qingyang

14 Feb 2022 (Mon)

 16:30-18:29  MBG09

How to Write the Introduction to the Translation Project

Prof. Linder Birgit



4. Format of Final Draft


The following guidelines will assist you to submit your project in an acceptable format. Students who submit work that is not in accordance with these guidelines might be asked to re-submit their work and/or be penalized for their shortcomings during assessment. Students who, for exceptional reasons, wish to present work in a different format must seek permission from their supervisor well before the submission date.


4.1. Order of Presentation


The different parts of the project that you are required to submit should be bound in the following order:


a) Title page;


b) Table of contents (optional);


c) Introduction;


d) Final version of your translation, with the source text on the opposite page. The source text should be on the left-hand page, and the corresponding translation on the right-hand page. Both the source text and the corresponding page of your translation should have the same page number, so there are two page 1's, two page 2's and so on. The two texts on the same page should correspond to each other line by line wherever this is possible.


The supervised and unsupervised parts should be separated by a page with the words "Unsupervised Part (未經指導部分)" written on it, together with the following declaration in both English and Chinese:


I declare that I have done the following part entirely on my own, without any help from my supervisor or any other person.




Date 日期:


e) Earlier drafts. These should be submitted in their originals with your supervisor's corrections on them so that the second assessor and the external examiner can clearly see the corrections and comments that have been made. Do not lose these drafts. Photocopies of drafts are not acceptable for submission. You must remove all traces of your name and the name of your supervisor from the drafts by cutting them off or blackening them completely. Do not just cover them with correction fluid or tapes. Failure to comply with this requirement may result in a penalty. These drafts should be put in a separate folder.


4.2. Typing/Printing


Projects should be printed on A4 size paper (297mm x 210mm). The paper must be white and the print must be black. Ensure that the printing of the final version is of good quality.


Double spacing or 1.5 spacing may be used. Single spacing is not acceptable, except in footnotes or indented quotations. The type face should be easy to read and appropriate to an academic project. The Department suggests Times New Roman for English and 細明體 for Chinese. If in doubt, consult your supervisor, and present him/her with a sample of your work. Do not use sans serif typefaces, e.g. Arial, for your main text. The print sizes should be 12 points for main text and 10 points for footnote text.


A new paragraph should only be indicated by three-to-five-space indentations in the first line, with the space between paragraphs being the same as that between lines. Leaving a whole blank line between paragraphs with no indentation of the first line is becoming more widespread in business and administration, but it is rarely used in academic or literary writing, and thus should not be used in your projects. A blank line between paragraphs and indentation is only used sparingly to indicate a major break within a chapter or part, and it is definitely wrong to mark all paragraph breaks in this way.


The left-hand margin should be 4cm (so as to ensure that the text is not too close to the spine of the bound project), whereas the top, right and bottom margins should be 2cm.


Page numbers should be at the top right margin, or bottom centre or right margin, and should be in the same typeface as the main text. They should neither be too close to the edge of the page nor too close to the text.


Footnotes should be indicated with numbers rather than symbols, and the number should appear as superscript after the section that is being footnoted in the main text. However, in cases where there are both footnotes in the source text as well as your own annotations, it is best to present one as footnotes and the other as endnotes, using symbols (normally asterisks) for the footnotes. If the source text uses numbers, it is better to have your notes as footnotes and present the notes in the source text as endnotes with their original numbering. If the source text uses symbols, it is better if you use numbered endnotes for your annotations.


You may reproduce the source text by scanning or photocopying provided that the final product is clean. The advantage of these methods is that they are error-free. If you choose to re-type the source text, you need to be extremely careful in your proofreading. 


4.3. Title Page


The title page must be clear, well set out, and carry all the information that is required.


Please do not add additional ornamentation here or elsewhere in the copy for submission.


Please provide the following details:


a) The words "LINGNAN UNIVERSITY" in capital letters across the top;


b) "Department of Translation" directly below;


c) The course code and title, e.g. "TRA318 Translation Project (E-C & C-E)";


d) The title of the piece you have translated in the target language. You may wish to highlight this by using larger print, but 18 points should be the maximum;


e) The title of the piece in the source language. This need only be in the normal print size;


f) The author's name in both languages, with that in the target language first;


g) The title of the book, journal or magazine from which your piece came, in both the target and source languages, with page references. Normal size print;


h) The name of the publisher of the book, place of publication, and date of publication, in both languages;


i) The date (month and year) of submission of the project;


Please click here to see a sample of the title page.


4.4. Binding


The final draft of your project must be bound in a way that looks formal and tidy. You should use transparent covers so that the title page can be read without opening the front cover.


Please use plastic rings for binding to avoid loose pages. No pages should protrude outside the edges of the cover. Before binding, make certain all pages are in the correct order.


Each of the earlier drafts should also be bound separately and securely. You must make sure that pages will not fall out, and you should still include a title page under a transparent plastic cover.


5. Submission of Final Draft


Please submit your project to the Department Office in person, so that a number can be assigned to each project.


The deadline for submission of the final draft is 3:00 pm on the first weekday of the week after the end of term. Late submissions without proven cause face incremental penalties of 2% per day, subject to the discretion of the supervisor and/or project course leader. Late submissions of more than 10 days without valid cause will not be accepted.


6. Samples


If you would like to see samples of completed projects, please contact your supervisor. Each supervisor keeps a few samples, which can be inspected in person, but cannot be taken away.


7. Assessment Exercise


Your project will be assessed by your supervisor and at least one other teacher. The procedure for the assessment of the project is as follows:


a) After supervisors submit their marks, a double-blind second assessment exercise will be conducted. The second assessors, the names of the students, and the names of the supervisors all remain anonymous.


b) All staff members except the one who has been elected the "Judge of Final Appeal" will take part in the exercise. The second assessor for each project will be assigned by the Department Office. Second assessment will be mainly based on the unsupervised part and the second half of the first draft, but reference may be made to the supervised part if deemed necessary.


c) When the grade given by the supervisor and that given by the second assessor differ by one sub-grade, the former will usually prevail. When they differ by two sub-grades, the median grade will be given.


d) If the two grades differ by more than two sub-grades, the project will be subject to a third assessment conducted by members of the Project Assessment Panel. Third assessors will also be assigned by the Department Office.


e) Supervisors may appeal against any upward or downward adjustment resulting from second or third assessment. These appeals are also handled by the Panel.


f) The grades given by the Panel will be final, no matter whether they fall inside or outside the range between the grades given by the supervisor and the assessor(s).


g) The Panel may refer difficult cases to the "Judge of Final Appeal", who is not involved in second and third assessments.


h) The "Judge of Final Appeal" also handles appeals lodged by students.


i) Cases mentioned in Points g) and h) will be handled by another member of staff if the project concerned was supervised by the "Judge of final Appeal".


j) The Project Assessment Panel or its representative(s) reserves the right to request any project student suspected of not having done the unsupervised part entirely on his/her own to attend an oral and/or a written examination.


8. Assessment Guidelines


a) The Introduction is not assessed separately but as an integral part of the project. If the purpose and the corresponding strategies of translation are clearly defined and followed through in the translation, the project may be upgraded. If the translation work conflicts with, or does not utilize, the strategies or aims laid out in the introduction, this may bring down the overall grade. The quality of writing in the introduction is as important as in the translation.


b) The supervised part shall be assessed based on the following:


i) The basic quality of writing in the target text (e.g. mistakes in grammar, syntax, etc.). Projects in the C-E direction will be graded more leniently in this regard.
ii) the overall quality of the translation (e.g. diction, syntax, style, etc.).
iii) The accuracy of the translation (i.e. did the student mistranslate sections of the text?).
iv) The level of difficulty of the source text.
v) The implementation of the various strategies, theories, etc. that the student discussed in the introduction.
vi) How much the student improved during the course of the year.
vii) The completion of the supervision process, i.e. going through the entire supervised part with the supervisor, either in one-on-one meetings or by email in the case of students on exchange.


c) The unsupervised part shall be assessed based on the same criteria as the supervised part, with the exception of items vi) and vii), which apply only to the supervised part.


9. Assessment Rubrics

Rubrics for Assessment the Final-year Project

Aspect of Performance

Assessment Criteria

Max. Marks

Min. Marks to Pass

Marks obtained by Student


1. Translation

  • Correct understanding of the source text
  • Appropriate translation methods and appropriate choice of language and register
  • The quality of the target text and the extent to which it fits the purposes
  • The degree of difficulty of the translation task
  • Completion of the supervision process





2. Introduction

  • Whether there is academic value
  • Whether the idea has been presented clearly and logically
  • Whether the writing is well organized
  • Whether there are spelling or grammatical mistakes





Final Mark


Final Grade



10. Translation Project Prize


A maximum of four prizes of HK$1,000 each may be given each year to the best of the projects that score A- or above. The selection of projects to receive prizes will be made at the discretion of the Project Assessment Panel.



(Last revised on 21 October 2020.)