從小武到導演 從黑白到彩色——黃鶴聲戰前的電影軌跡 From Xiaowu to Director, from Black and White to Colour—Wong Hok-sing’s Cinema Trajectory in Pre-war Times

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作者:吳月華

黃鶴聲——一個在不少粵語片工作人員名單看過的導演名字,但事實上,黃鶴聲在戰前是以粵劇小武身份踏足舞台,繼而躍登銀幕,其名聲與同期同樣以演武俠片走進影圈的新馬師曾不相伯仲。黃鶴聲導演的作品大多是粵劇武場連連的黑白古裝片,但他曾經是早期少數能拍攝彩色片的粵語片導演,而他拍攝彩色片的技術並不是在香港習得,而是遠渡重洋到美國學習,更在當地拍攝關於華僑的彩色時裝電影供當地觀眾欣賞,這些影片戰後亦曾在香港公映。本文會從黃鶴聲早年四處演出和遊歷的軌跡,勾勒早期香港電影的發展。


粵劇小武

黃鶴聲的祖父是佛山清平戲院的股東之一,因此他從小常在戲院留連,漸漸對粵劇產生興趣,於是萌起學習粵戲的念頭。當他得知廣東戲劇研究所招生時,十四歲的黃鶴聲在父母不知情下悄悄地投考,並成功考進研究所,學習粵劇和崑曲。研究所停辦後,他又轉到廣州八和會館粵劇人才養成所學藝,與劉克宣、張活游和羅品超等成為同窗。經過二十個月的訓練後,黃鶴聲既年紀輕又用功,成績優異,畢業後,在八和會館安排下,往薛覺先的省港大班覺先聲劇團登台實習,成為劇團的第七小武。未幾,因薛覺先前往上海,覺先聲劇團散班,黃鶴聲祇好轉投普齊天、唐天寶、勝壽年、大羅天等劇團。經過幾年舞台和落鄉班的鍛鍊,在廣州珠海戲院老闆支持下,黃鶴聲終在由後起之秀組成的萬年青劇團擔正文武生,他主演的《十萬童屍》更大受歡迎。[1]惜受戰事影響,萬年青與其他戲班一樣,轉到香港演出,及後更赴安南(即越南)、新加坡等地演出,卻因華僑關懷祖國戰事,對舊姿態之粵劇不感興趣,加上團員間的不和,賣座不佳,黃鶴聲曾一度滯留南洋。[2]1938年,幸得馬師曾的邀請,回港加入太平劇團,任正印小武。[3]當時粵劇紅伶最具票房號召力,太平劇團是省港大班,而黃鶴聲的地位只僅次於劇團台柱馬師曾和譚蘭卿,黃鶴聲擁有如此實力和觀眾的新生代,當然成為片商誠邀的對象。

武俠片的中堅

自1937年抗戰爆發,上海影人南下,其中包括導演洪仲豪和其第一代武俠女星妻子錢似鶯。他們在香港看到新馬師曾演的粵劇包含大量動作場面,聽不懂粵語的他們也覺有趣,因此誠邀當時尚未有銀幕經驗的新馬師曾主演他們創辦的三興貿易公司作品《方世玉打擂台》,影片大受歡迎,掀起了武俠片熱潮,從此三興成為武俠片大本營。[4]在伶人紛紛參與電影製作的潮流當中,新紥文武生黃鶴聲當然也是各大片商招攬的對象,最後他選擇了主演三興出品、洪仲豪胞弟洪叔雲導演的《打破銅網陣》(1939)作為他在銀幕首度亮相的作品。《打破銅網陣》改編自著名武俠小說《七俠五義》,黃鶴聲在片中飾演錦毛鼠白玉堂,是一個亦正亦邪的角色。接着又主演改編自著名武俠小說《小五義》的三興作品《三戲白菊花》(1939;洪仲豪、楊弘冠導演),黃鶴聲飾演的白菊花更是一名採花大賊,可見黃鶴聲即使是主角,飾演的角色也不是一面倒的正派,反而是有點前衛的越界角色。

除了改編自武俠小說的電影,廣州於1938年淪陷後,香港影壇隨即發展出另一類「武俠片」。面對日軍的入侵,海內外華人義憤填膺,但當時香港政府不容許公開的抗日活動,因此香港電影人轉而借古喻今,因此掀起了一片有歷史背景的古裝武俠片熱潮。[5]小武出身的黃鶴聲在不同的三興古裝武俠片中,亦是飾演一些歷代名將,如在《趙匡胤夜送京娘》(1939)飾宋朝開國皇帝趙匡胤、在《狄青》和《五虎平西》(1940)飾北宋名將狄青、在《薛仁貴征東》(1940)飾唐朝名將薛仁貴,在這些影片盡顯他的武場功架。1940年,黃鶴聲將他自撰的粵劇首本戲《十萬童屍》搬上銀幕,故事近似元代雜劇《趙氏孤兒》,影片交由剛從上海南下的導演畢虎拍攝。[6]

除了多人主演的早期作品《十二寡婦》(1939)是時裝片外,1939、1940年間黃鶴聲主演的十齣影片皆是古裝片,角色多為俠義之士,因此他俠義的形象已深入觀眾心中。黃鶴聲片約不絕,同時亦是太平劇團台柱之一,影劇發展一帆風順,令不少伶人望塵莫及,也吸引了遠在美國的三藩市院商,邀請黃鶴聲往當地登台六個月,而當地剛好正舉辦世界博覽會。黃鶴聲認為這是往外看看這個世界的難得機會,於是放下香港的一切工作,向美國出發。[7]

黃鶴聲
黃鶴聲戰前參與的電影不少是武俠片大本營三興貿易公司的出品,影片廣告經常以他身為太平劇團紅伶和雄糾糾的扮相作招徠(《華僑日報》1940年1月24日)。

滯美乘機學習電影

正當黃鶴聲在美演戲時,由於戰爭激烈,不能返國,衹好留在美國繼續演戲。當地戲院沒有日場的演出,因此黃鶴聲有不少空閒時間,打工之餘,也認識了不少國外朋友,並重遇大觀聲片有限公司的主事人趙樹燊。[8]趙樹燊本是當地華僑,1939年為了實現香港大觀拍攝彩色電影的夢想,離港返美籌募資金。期間得到協助他拍攝第一齣在美國攝製的粵語片《歌侶情潮》製作人史堅拿幫忙,趙樹燊拍攝了局部彩片《華僑之光》(1940)。[9]由於黃鶴聲來美前已參演不少電影,對攝影也很感興趣,於是閒來有空便拍照玩玩,趙樹燊見他喜歡攝影,便鼓勵他到攝影學校學習。黃鶴聲找到一間政府辦的攝影學校,該校設有免費攝影課程,他便報名修讀,學習了兩年攝影和沖印等知識。因他英文不太好,不明白便向趙樹燊請教,趙樹燊看見黃鶴聲對電影感興趣,又教他一些電影知識和理論,二人差不多每天也見面數小時討論電影。

因為戰事,中國的影片未能運到美國,當地華僑衹能不斷看重映的影片,觀眾已不感興趣。於是趙樹燊提出組織片廠拍攝影片給當地觀眾看,並請黃鶴聲幫忙一起拍攝。趙樹燊租了一間貨倉,和黃鶴聲開始簡陋的製作,大觀的美國分廠由此成立。雖然趙樹燊對佈景、攝影、導演、收音都非常熟落,但片廠面積小,又沒有足夠的燈,於是採用16mm菲林來進行拍攝的試驗,拍攝了《一曲碎郎心》。影片由趙樹燊任導演,黃鶴聲和趙的太太麗兒演出,黃鶴聲更擔任影片的編劇,又向趙學習佈景和收音,還有鄧培幫忙佈景,所以所謂的美國分廠製作團隊其實祇有四人。由於是小型的獨立製作,又沒有映期的壓力,未幾趙樹燊便讓黃鶴聲當導演,而黃鶴聲以在學時「黃金印」之名作為他在美任導演時的名稱。

美國分廠拍出來的電影甚受當地觀眾歡迎,趙樹燊感覺中國電影尚未有彩色片,因此當黑白片的製作順暢後,於是又請黃鶴聲返回攝影學校學習沖印彩色片。黃鶴聲學習了六個月,畢業後他又和趙樹燊一起嘗試沖印16mm彩色片,但因沖片時溫度不準確只能沖出單色,經過一個月反覆的測試,終能沖出七彩影片。此時,剛好蔣偉光也居留當地,於是美國分廠又多了一名導演。黃鶴聲在大觀美國分廠逗留了六、七年,與趙樹燊一伙人拍攝了一批關於美國華僑的電影,大部份是16mm彩色時裝片[10],其中《金粉霓裳》(1947)的故事更設於三藩市的大觀戲院,並拍攝了當時戲班演員上妝、練習和上香的後台風光。[11]


返回原地

1948年,黃鶴聲先於趙樹燊返港復建大觀,大觀戰後首部拍攝的影片便是由黃鶴聲以黃金印之名執導的彩色時裝片《連生貴子》。故事不再以華僑為背景,是一齣通俗喜劇。影片花了四十多天拍攝,拍竣後,底片航運往美國分廠沖印。[12]可惜的是,當時香港已有彩色的荷里活電影,而戰後本地粵語片觀眾的經濟能力不高,且大量粵語片湧現,彩色片製作和沖印成本高,彩色粵語片未能成為粵語片的主流,要至五十年代中粵語戲曲片帶起彩色片的需求,而黃鶴聲才能再次發揮他在美學藝之所長。黃鶴聲既能因應時勢所需,既能隨俗,又可重塑自己,在戰後影圈影劇雙棲,以「黃鶴聲」之名,能演能導能編,是影圈少見的全能創作人。

黃鶴聲回港後首齣導演作品《連生貴子》仍以「黃金印」之名,而同期上映的兩齣荷里活電影皆標榜為七彩作品
(《華僑日報》1949年1月1日)。

 

  1. 鄭孟霞主持:《戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲》(錄音節目)。香港:麗的呼聲電台,1962;〈黃鶴聲〉,「香港影人小傳檢索」,《香港電影資料館》網頁,(https://www.filmarchive.gov.hk/documents/18995340/19057017/WONG%2BHok-sing_c.pdf)。檢索日期:2022年8月17日;〈戲迷心中的黃鶴聲〉,《藝林》29期,1938年5月1日。
  2. 〈萬年青拉箱過安南〉,《藝林》17期,1937年11月1日;〈黃鶴聲歸港訊〉,《藝林》35期,1938年8月1日。
  3. 香港電影資料館「香港影人小傳檢索」的黃鶴聲條目指黃鶴聲1940年加入太平劇團(〈黃鶴聲〉,《香港電影資料館》網頁),而於《戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲》中,黃鶴聲指他約1937年加入太平劇團(鄭孟霞主持,《戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲》)。《藝林》1939年1月1日報導指他是太平劇團的一員(〈一個聰明的戲劇戰士 黃鶴聲去上海 不演無意識影片.免人疵議〉,《藝林》45期,1939年1月1日),《華僑日報》《趙匡胤夜送京娘》(1939)頭版廣告亦以「太平劇團正印小武黃鶴聲」作招徠(〈趙匡胤夜送京娘〉廣告,《華僑日報》1939年11月15日),但1937年黃鶴聲跟隨萬年青劇團滯留安,據報他1938年8月5日才返港,此後加盟太平劇團(〈望穿戲迷眼 黃鶴聲滯留赤道線〉,《藝林》34期,1938年7月15日;〈黃鶴聲歸港訊〉,《藝林》35期,1938年8月1日),因此筆者取黃鶴聲1938年加入太平劇團之說。
  4. 吳月華:〈一位被歷史淹沒的名導——洪仲豪〉,《香港電影評論學會》網頁,(https://www.filmcritics.org.hk/zh-hant/%E9%9B%BB%E5%BD%B1%E8%A9%95%E8%AB%96/%E6%9C%83%E5%93%A1%E5%BD%B1%E8%A9%95/%E4%B8%80%E4%BD%8D%E8%A2%AB%E6%AD%B7%E5%8F%B2%E6%B7%B9%E6%B2%92%E7%9A%84%E5%90%8D%E5%B0%8E%E2%94%80%E2%94%80%E6%B4%AA%E4%BB%B2%E8%B1%AA)。檢索日期:2022年8月18日。
  5. 〈黃鶴聲在影界有地位之後 張活游有約於人〉,《藝林》59期,1939年8月1日。
  6. 〈黃鶴聲演首本戲「十萬童屍」〉,《電影圈》第三年第60期,1940年1月1日;〈十萬童屍〉廣告,《華僑日報》1940年6月19日;〈十萬童屍〉,《香港影片大全第一卷(一九一四至一九四一)增訂本》,香港:香港電影資料館,2020,頁167。
  7. 鄭孟霞主持,《戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲》。
  8. 鄭孟霞主持,《戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲》。
  9. 〈介紹華僑之光〉,《藝林》62期,1939年11月15日。
  10. 鄭孟霞主持,《戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲》。
  11. 饒韻華:〈跨洋的粵劇、觀眾和文化流動〉,《國際演藝評論家協會(香港分會)》網頁,(https://www.iatc.com.hk/doc/106919?fbclid=IwAR2COqu9G7Y7S493v2Mlst_sVtR3-ViqAxiT9XzTp2_ilLwmttjAuuWKswI);〈金粉霓裳〉,《香港電影資料館》網頁,(https://www.filmarchive.gov.hk/zh_TW/web/hkfa/pe-event-2021-ths-fs-film14.html)。
  12. 永一:〈伍錦霞在美做導演〉,《公評報》1948年2月8日;明眼:〈「連生貴子」運美沖印〉,《公評報》1948年4月26日。

 

 

Author: Stephanie Ng Yuet-wah

Wong Hok-sing—A film director whose name appears on the credits of many Cantonese films—but before the war, he began his career performing on stage as a xiaowu (young military male role) in Cantonese opera. He later made his way to the big screen, with a reputation comparable to that of his contemporary, Sun Ma Si-tsang, who also began his career in the film industry with martial arts films. His works are mostly black-and-white costume films with many Cantonese opera action scenes. However, he was one of the few Cantonese film directors who could shoot colour films. He did not learn his colour-shooting skills in Hong Kong but in the United States, where he made colour films about Chinese people living overseas for local audiences, which were screened in Hong Kong after the war. This article will give an overview of the development of early Hong Kong cinema through the trajectory of Wong Hok-sing’s early performances and travels.

Xiaowu in Cantonese Opera

Wong’s grandfather was one of the shareholders of Qing Ping Theatre in Foshan, so he often spent time at the theatre in his childhood. Gradually he developed an interest in Cantonese Opera and thought about learning it. When he found out that Guangdong Drama Research Centre was admitting students, the 14-year-old Wong applied for it without his parent’s awareness and was admitted to the institute to study Cantonese opera and Kunqu.  When the centre ceased its operation, he continued his studies at the Cantonese opera talent training centre, The Chinese Artists Association of Guangzhou, where he became classmates with Lau Hark-suen, Cheung Wood-yau, and Luo Pinchao. After 20 months of training, the young, hard-working Wong excelled in his studies. Upon graduation, under the arrangement of The Chinese Artists Association, he was assigned to Sit Kok-Sin’s Kok Sin Sing Opera Troupe to practise stage performance and became the seventh xiaowu of the troupe. However, it didn’t last very long because Sit left for Shanghai and the troupe was disbanded. Wong could only turn to other troupes, such as Po Chai Tin Opera Troupe, Tong Tin Bo Opera Troupe, the Shing Sou Lin Opera Troupe and the Tai Law Tin Opera Troupe. After a few years of stage training with countryside troupes, Wong gained support from the boss of the Zhuhai Theatre in Guangzhou and finally became the lead wenwusheng (civil and military male role) in the Forever Green Opera Troupe formed by emerging talents. The film One Hundred Thousand Children’s Corpses, in which he played a leading role, was very well received.[1]  Unfortunately, affected by the war, Forever Green, like the other troupes, had to move to Hong Kong to perform and, later on, to places like An Nam (Vietnam) and Singapore. However, the local Chinese had shifted their focus on the war in China and lost interest in the old-style Cantonese opera. Coupled with discord among troupe members, the troupe struggled to sell out, and Wong was stranded in Southeast Asia.[2]As luck would have it, in 1938, he was invited by Ma Si-Tsang to return to Hong Kong and join the Tai Ping Opera Troupe as their lead xiaowu.[3] At that time, famous Cantonese opera performers had the power to boost box office sales. The Tai Ping Opera Troupe was one of the most popular troupes in Hong Kong, and Wong ranked second only to the pillars of the troupe, Ma Si-tsang and Tam Lan-hing. Representing a new generation with talent and audience, Wong was naturally in demand by many filmmakers.

The Backbone of Martial Arts Films

After the outbreak of the war in 1937, many working in Shanghai cinema moved to the south, including director Hung Chung-ho and his wife Chin Tsi-ang, a female martial arts star of the first generation. In Hong Kong, they watched a Cantonese opera with a lot of action scenes played by Sun Ma Si-tsang. Even though they did not understand Cantonese, they found it interesting. As a result, they invited Sun Ma Si-Tsang, who had no film experience at the time, to star in the production of Sanxing Trading Company, which they had founded. The Young Fighter was a big hit and created a craze for martial arts films, putting Sanxing at the centre of martial arts films.[4] In the midst of the trend in which opera performers participated one after another in film production, Wong Hok-sing, then a newly appointed wenwusheng, was naturally the perfect candidate for many major filmmakers. In the end, he chose to make his screen debut in Breaking Through the Bronze Net (1939), produced by Sanxing and directed by Hung Suk-wan, the younger brother of Hung Chung-ho. Breaking Through the Bronze Net was an adaptation of the famous martial arts novel The Seven Heroes and Five Gallants in which Wong plays the role of Bai Yu Tang, the Sleek Rat, a character of both good and evil. He then starred in Triple Flirtation of the White Chrysanthemum (1939; directed by Hung Chung-ho and Yeung Wang-kwun) produced by Sanxing, which is an adaptation of the famous martial arts novel Little Five Heroes. In the film, he played the role of White Chrysanthemum—a sex thief. So even if Wong is the protagonist, his role is not always as heroic as expected, but a slightly avant-garde villainous character.

Other than films based on martial arts novels, the fall of Guangzhou in 1938 led to another type of “martial arts film” in Hong Kong cinema. Facing Japan’s invasion, the Chinese at home and abroad were filled with indignation, but the Hong Kong government did not allow overt anti-Japanese activities. As a result, Hong Kong filmmakers made use of metaphors to allude to the present with past events, thus creating a wave of historical martial arts films.[5] Wong Hok-sing, who began his career as a xiaowu, played several famous generals in different historical martial arts films produced by Sanxing. For instance, he played Zhao Kuangyin, the founding emperor of the Song dynasty, in Farewell to My Lady (1939); Di Qing, the famous general of the Northern Song dynasty, in The Marrying General and The Five Generals (1940); and Xue Rengui, the famous general of the Tang dynasty, in Expedition to the East (1940). In these films, his martial arts skills are fully displayed. In 1940, Wong brought to the screen his renowned Cantonese opera creation, One Hundred Thousand Children’s Corpses, which was similar to Yuan zaju, The Orphan of Zhao. It was shot by director But Fu, who had just arrived from Shanghai.[6]

Besides The Twelve Widows, the other ten films in which Wong starred between 1939 to 1940 are all costume films, with most of the roles of heroic nature. Therefore his image of a hero was deeply felt by audiences. His film contracts were never-ending, at the same time, he was also one of the pillars of the Tai Ping Opera Troupe. His success in film and theatre was so great that many opera artists could only dream of such success, and it had even attracted some institutes and commerce in San Francisco, USA. He was then invited to perform in San Francisco for six months, just as the Universal Exposition was being held. He saw this as a unique opportunity to see the world, so he left all his work in Hong Kong and set off for the United States.[7]

黃鶴聲

Many of Wong’s pre-war films were produced by Sanxing Trading Company, which was at the very centre of martial arts films, and the trailers often featured him as the star of the Tai Ping Opera Troupe and as a majestic figure ( Wah Kiu Yat Po, 24th January 1940).

Taking the Opportunity to Study Cinema while Stranded in the United States

While Wong Hok-sing was performing in the United States, he could not return to his home country due to the intensity of the war and had to stay there to continue performing. The local theatres did not show matinee performances, so he had a lot of leisure time to continue his work. He also met many foreign friends and reconnected with Joseph Sunn Jue (aka Chiu Shu-sun, the director of Grandview Film Company Limited.[8] Chiu was a local Chinese who, in 1939, left Hong Kong and returned to the United States to raise funds to realise his dream of producing colour films at Grandview Film in Hong Kong. Assisted by Skinner, the producer of his first Cantonese film in the United States, Blossom Time, Chiu made a partial colour film, The Light of the Overseas Chinese (1940).[9] Before coming to America, Wong had already participated in many film productions and was interested in photography, so he would take photos as a hobby during his leisure time. Having noticed Wong’s interest in photography, Chiu encouraged him to study at a photography school. Wong found a government-run photography school offering free photography courses, so he enrolled in it and studied photography and photographic processing for two years. His English was not good, so he went to Chiu for advice. Having noticed Wong’s interest in film, Chiu would teach him about cinema and its theory, and the two would meet to discuss films almost every day for several hours.

Due to the war, films produced in China could not be shipped to the United States, and the local Chinese could only watch re-released films repeatedly, so the audience lost interest. Therefore Chiu came up with the idea of organising a film studio to make films for the local audience and asked Wong to help with the filming. Chiu rented a warehouse, and together with Wong, they started working on some small productions, thus establishing the American branch of Grandview Film. Although Chiu was experienced in setting, filming, directing, and sound recording, the studio was small, and there were not enough lights. He then experimented with 16mm film and created Song of A Man’s Broken Heart. The film was directed by Chiu, with Wong, and Chiu’s wife, Lai Yee, starring in it. Wong also wrote the screenplay for the film and learned from Chiu about setting and sound recording. Tang Pui also helped to prepare the set. Therefore, the so-called American branch was run by only four production team members. Since the films were small independent productions, with no pressure of a deadline, Chiu soon asked Wong to be the director. Wong used the nickname he had as a student, “Wong Kam-yan”, as an alias when working as a director in the United States.

The films produced at the American branch were very popular among the local audience. Chiu had a feeling that colour films were not yet available in China, so when the production of black and white films began to settle, he asked Wong to return to the photography school to learn about processing colour films. After six months of study, Wong tried to develop 16mm colour films with Chiu, but they could only develop monochrome films due to inaccurate temperature. After a month of repeated testing, they finally developed full-colour films. At that time, Chiang Wai-kwong was also in town, so the American branch gained another director. Wong had stayed at the American branch of Grandview Film for six to seven years, working with Chiu and his team to produce a number of films about Chinese people living in America, which are mostly 16mm colour modern films[10], among which the story of White Powder and Neon Lights (1947) was even set in the Grandview Theatre in San Francisco, filming the glorious backstage scenes of troupe performers putting on makeup, practising, and burning incense to pray.[11]

Back to the Origin

In 1948, Wong returned to Hong Kong to re-establish Grandview Film. The first post-war film by Grandview Film was a colour modern film, A Baby for Everybody, directed by Wong under the name of Wong Kam-yan. The story is no longer based on Chinese people living overseas but instead based on popular comedy. The film took over forty days to shoot, and once finished, the negatives were shipped to the American branch for processing.[12] Unfortunately, Hollywood films in colour were already showing in Hong Kong. Moreover, in the post-war era, local audiences of Cantonese films could not afford to watch a film. There was also an influx of Cantonese films, which, when coupled with the high production and processing costs of colour films, meant that colour Cantonese films did not become the mainstream of Cantonese films until the mid-1950s when Cantonese opera films created a demand for colour films, it was then that Wong was again able to make the most of his studies in the United States. Wong knew how to adapt to the needs of the times and flow with popular culture. He was able to reinvent himself, pursuing his career in both cinema and theatre in post-war times. Under the name “Wong Hok-sing”, being able to act, direct and create made him an all-round creator, which was rare in the film industry. 

 

After returning to Hong Kong, Wong’s first directorial work, A Baby for Everybody, still bears the name “Wong Kam-yan”, while the two Hollywood films released in the same period are labelled as full-colour works (Wah Kiu Yat Po, 1st January 1949).

 

[1] Cheang, M. (鄭孟霞) (Host). (1962). Xiju shengya: Huanghesheng (Performing life: Wong Hok-sing, 戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲) (Radio Programme). Hong Kong: Radio Rediffusion; Hong Kong Filmmakers Search. (n.d.). Wong Hok-sing. In Hong Kong Film Archive. https://www.filmarchive.gov.hk/documents/18995340/19057017/WONG%2BHok-sing_c.pdf; (1938, May 1). Ximi xinzhong de Huanghesheng (Wong Hok-sing in the heart of fans, 戲迷心中的黃鶴聲). Artland, (29).

[2] (1937, November 1). Wannianqing laxiang guo Annan (Forever Green Opera Troupe goes to Vietnam, 萬年青拉箱過安南). Artland, (17); (1938, August 1). Huanghesheng guigang xun (Wong Hok-sing back to Hong Kong, 黃鶴聲歸港訊). Artland, (35).

[3] Hong Kong Filmmakers Search of Hong Kong Film Archive stated that Wong Hok-sing joined Tai Ping Opera Troupe in 1940 (Hong Kong Filmmakers Search. (n.d.). Wong Hok-sing. In Hong Kong Film Archive. https://www.filmarchive.gov.hk/documents/18995340/19057017/WONG%2BHok-sing_c.pdf). Yet Wong Hok-sing said that he joined Tai Ping Opera Troupe in 1937 in a radio programme (Refer to Cheang, M. (鄭孟霞) (Host). (1962). Xiju shengya: Huanghesheng (Performing life: Wong Hok-sing, 戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲)). A 1 January 1939 article of Artland reported that Wong is a member of Tai Ping Opera Troupe ((1939, January 1). Yige congming de xiju zhanshi  Huanghesheng qu Shanghai  buyan wuyishi yingpian mianrenciyi (A smart play fighter  Wong Hok-sing goes to Shanghai to avoid playing non-progressive films, 一個聰明的戲劇戰士 黃鶴聲去上海 不演無意識影片.免人疵議). Artland, (45)). Wong Hok-sing is also highlighted as the leading xiaowu of Tai Ping Opera Troupe in the advertisement of Farewell to My Lady (1939) in the cover page of Wah Kiu Yat Po (See (1939, November 15). Advertisement of Farewell to My Lady (《趙匡胤夜送京娘》廣告), Wah Kiu Yat Po). According to Artland articles, Wong Hok-sing was stranded in Vietnam in 1937. He returned to Hong Kong on 5 August 1938 to join Tai Ping Opera Troupe (See (1938, July 15). (望穿戲迷眼 黃鶴聲滯留赤道線). Artland, (34); (1938, August 1). (黃鶴聲歸港訊). Artland, (35)). As a result, author concludes that Wong Hok-sing joined Tai Ping Opera Troupe in 1938.

[4] Ng, Y. W. S. (吳月華). (2017, March 15). Yiwei bei lishi yanmo de mingdao (A famous director submerged in history — Hung Chung-ho, 一位被歷史淹沒的名導——洪仲豪). Hong Kong Film Critics Society. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.filmcritics.org.hk/zh-hant/%E9%9B%BB%E5%BD%B1%E8%A9%95%E8%AB%96/%E6%9C%83%E5%93%A1%E5%BD%B1%E8%A9%95/%E4%B8%80%E4%BD%8D%E8%A2%AB%E6%AD%B7%E5%8F%B2%E6%B7%B9%E6%B2%92%E7%9A%84%E5%90%8D%E5%B0%8E%E2%94%80%E2%94%80%E6%B4%AA%E4%BB%B2%E8%B1%AA.

[5] (1939, August 1). Huanghesheng zai yingjie you dewei zhihou  Zhenghuoyou youyue yuren (After Wong Hok-sing with status in film industry  Cheung Wood-yau has contract with film company, 黃鶴聲在影界有地位之後 張活游有約於人). Artland, (59).

[6] (1940, January 1). Huanghesheng yan shoubenxi Shiwantongshi (Wong Hok-sing play his renowned Cantonese opera, One Hundred Thousand Children’s Corpses, on screen, 黃鶴聲演首本戲「十萬童屍」). Screen Voice, 3(60); (1940, June 19). Shiwantongshi guanggao (Advertisement of One Hundred Thousand Children’s Corpses, 《十萬童屍廣告), Wah Kiu Yat Po; (2020). One Hundred Thousand Children’s Corpses. In S. Wong (黃淑嫻) & C. Kwok (郭靜寧) (Eds.), Hong Kong filmography Vol I (1914–1941) (Rev. Ed.). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Film Archive, 167 (in Chinese).

[7] Cheang, M. (鄭孟霞) (Host). (1962). Xiju shengya: Huanghesheng (Performing life: Wong Hok-sing, 戲劇生涯:黃鶴聲) (Radio Programme). Hong Kong: Radio Rediffusion.

[8] Ibid.

[9] (1939, November 15). Jieshao Huaqiao zhi guang (Introducing The Light of the Overseas Chinese, 介紹華僑之光). Artland, (62).

[10] See note 8.

[11] Rao, Y. (饒韻華). (n.d.). Kuayang de yueju, guanzhong he wenhua liudong (Overseas Cantonese opera, audiences and cultural flow, 跨洋的粵劇、觀眾和文化流動). International Association of Theatre Critics (Hong Kong). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://www.iatc.com.hk/doc/106919?fbclid=IwAR2COqu9G7Y7S493v2Mlst_sVtR3-ViqAxiT9XzTp2_ilLwmttjAuuWKswI; (n.d.). White Powder and Neon Lights. Hong Kong Film Archive. Retrieved August 26, 2022, https://www.filmarchive.gov.hk/zh_TW/web/hkfa/pe-event-2021-ths-fs-film14.html.

[12] Yong, Y. (永一). (1948, February 8). Wujinxia zaimei zuo daoyan (Esther Eng being a director in US, 伍錦霞在美做導演). Gong Ping Bao; Ming, Y. (明眼). (1948, April 26). Lianshengguizi yunmei chongyin (A Baby for Everybody sending film to US for developing, 「連生貴子」運美沖印). Gong Ping Bao.

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